Collection of 450+ weight loss studies: appetite, adherence, CICO, meal frequency, and more

 

Table of Contents

Summary and overview


  • Obesity and sustainable fat loss is quite complicated because it is affected by many factors and mechanisms
  • Too little sleep might affect your ability to lose fat (via increased appetite, for example)
  • Your reward system might affect your propensity to gain weight
  • Exercise might affect appetite
  • Exercise can act in synergy with caloric restriction to maintain/increase lean body mass while losing fat mass. The goal should be fat loss rather than weight loss (which includes loss of muscle mass).
  • Early glycogen/water loss affects your perceived weight loss (especially for low-carb diets)
  • The calories in calories out model is currently the theory with greatest scientific backing.
  • Protein is good for satiety (fullness)
  • Hormones like leptin, insulin, serotonin, and ghrelin are likely important for fat loss
  • Some people may be genetically predisposed to obesity (hunger, willpower, motivation, etc.)
  • The body might try to regain lost weight via different weight regulation mechanisms (metabolic, behavioural, hormonal, and more)
  • L-Carnitine as a weight loss supplement?
  • In short, it seems like we do not have as much control as we like to think we have. Most people who go on a diet, regain lost weight within a couple of years. Yet, there are many things we can do to improve our body composition.
  • The previous study collection on protein can be found here

Note: I haven’t read through all the studies, and the summary is preliminary/unfinished. The studies are presented here for informational and educational purposes.

 

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Bolded links are reviews or meta-analyses

 

Misc (18)


  1. Energy balance, body composition, sedentariness and appetite regulation: pathways to obesity. – PubMed – NCBI
  2. Challenges and Opportunities in Management of Obesity
  3. Myths, presumptions, and facts about obesity. – PubMed – NCBI
  4. Putting the Balance Back in Diet
  5. Weighing the Evidence of Common Beliefs in Obesity Research. – PubMed – NCBI
  6. Successful Development of Satiety Enhancing Food Products: Towards a Multidisciplinary Agenda of Research Challenges
  7. A talk between fat tissue, gut, pancreas and brain to control body weight
  8. Perspective: Randomized Controlled Trials Are Not a Panacea for Diet-Related Research. – PubMed – NCBI
  9. Common scientific and statistical errors in obesity research. – PubMed – NCBI
  10. Changes in awareness and use of calorie information after mandatory menu labeling in restaurants in King County, Washington. – PubMed – NCBI
  11. Differentiating between successful and unsuccessful dieters. Validity and reliability of the Perceived Self-Regulatory Success in Dieting Scale. – PubMed – NCBI
  12. Why diets fail: a hypothesis for discussion
  13. High salt intake: independent risk factor for obesity? – PubMed – NCBI
  14. The Importance of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Controlling Food Intake and Regulating Energy Balance. – PubMed – NCBI
  15. Subcutaneous fat loss is greater than visceral fat loss with diet and exercise, weight-loss promoting drugs and bariatric surgery: a critical revie… – PubMed – NCBI
  16. A review of the evidence: nuts and body weight. – PubMed – NCBI
  17. Clinical Review: Regulation of Food Intake, Energy Balance, and Body Fat Mass: Implications for the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Obesity
  18. Obesity changes the human gut mycobiome : Scientific Reports

 

Artificial sweeteners, liquid calories, and fat loss (12)


  1. Sucrose-sweetened beverages increase fat storage in the liver, muscle, and visceral fat depot: a 6-mo randomized intervention study
  2. The effects of water and non‐nutritive sweetened beverages on weight loss and weight maintenance: A randomized clinical trial
  3. Chronic Low-Calorie Sweetener Use and Risk of Abdominal Obesity among Older Adults: A Cohort Study
  4. Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight: A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies: “Overall, the balance of evidence indicates that use of low-energy sweeteners in place of sugar, in children and adults, leads to reduced energy intake and body weight, and possibly also when compared with water.”
  5. Liquid calories, sugar, and body weight. – PubMed – NCBI 
  6. Liquid calories and the failure of satiety: how good is the evidence? – Almiron-Roig – 2003 – Obesity Reviews – Wiley Online Library
  7. Metabolic and behavioral effects of a high-sucrose diet during weight loss. – PubMed – NCBI
  8. Pre- and within-meal effects of fluid dairy products on appetite, food intake, glycemia, and regulatory hormones in children – Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
  9. Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners: different effects on ad libitum food intake and body weight after 10 wk of supplementation in overweight subjects
  10. Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans
  11. Diet soda intake is associated with long-term increases in waist circumference in a bi-ethnic cohort of older adults: The San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging
  12. Artificially Sweetened Beverages and the Response to the Global Obesity Crisis

 

Alcohol (3)


  1. The relationship of alcohol use to weight loss in the context of behavioral weight loss treatment. – PubMed – NCBI: ”Alcohol consumption may lead to overeating episodes, and highly impulsive individuals may be at risk for increased energy intake during or after episodes of drinking. Therefore, the recommendation to reduce alcohol intake in the context of behavioral weight loss treatment seems warranted, particularly for individuals with high levels of impulsivity.”
  2. Alcohol consumption and body weight: a systematic review. – PubMed – NCBI: “The overall results do not conclusively confirm a positive association between alcohol consumption and weight gain; however, positive findings between alcohol intake and weight gain have been reported, mainly from studies with data on higher levels of drinking.”
  3. Perspectives: do alcohol calories count?

 

Appetite (24)


  1. A review of the effects of exercise on appetite regulation: an obesity perspective. – PubMed – NCBI
  2. Cross talk between physical activity and appetite control: does physical activity stimulate appetite? – PubMed – NCBI
  3. Dose-dependent effects of alcohol on appetite and food intake. – PubMed – NCBI
  4. Effect of exercise intensity and mode on acute appetite control in men and women – Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
  5. Effects of exercise and restrained eating behaviour on appetite control. – PubMed – NCBI 
  6. Effects of exercise on appetite control: implications for energy balance. – PubMed – NCBI
  7. Effects of High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise Training on Appetite Regulation. – PubMed – NCBI
  8. Exercise-induced suppression of appetite: effects on food intake and implications for energy balance. – PubMed – NCBI
  9. Mechanisms of appetite suppression after high intensity exercise in lean and obese boys
  10. The Effect of Intensity of Exercise on Appetite and Food Intake in Post-Exercise Period
  11. The Macronutrients, Appetite, and Energy Intake. – PubMed – NCBI
  12. How Strongly Does Appetite Counter Weight Loss? Quantification of the Feedback Control of Human Energy Intake. – PubMed – NCBI
  13. Acute and long-term effects of exercise on appetite control: is there any benefit for weight control? – PubMed – NCBI
  14. What processes are involved in the appetite response to moderate increases in exercise-induced energy expenditure? – PubMed – NCBI
  15. The effects of the combination of egg and fiber on appetite, glycemic response and food intake in normal weight adults – a randomized, controlled, crossover trial: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition: Vol 67, No 6
  16. Effect of 24-h severe energy restriction on appetite regulation and ad libitum energy intake in lean men and women. – PubMed – NCBI
  17. Acute compensatory eating following exercise is associated with implicit hedonic wanting for food. – PubMed – NCBI: “Some individuals could be resistant to the beneficial effects of exercise due to a predisposition to compensate for exercise-induced energy expenditure as a result of implicit changes in food preferences”
  18. Biological control of appetite: A daunting complexity – MacLean – 2017 – Obesity – Wiley Online Library: “It is this individual variability in the predisposition for obesity and in the biological response to weight loss that makes the biological component of appetite regulation so complicated. When this individual biological variability is placed in the context of the diverse environmental and behavioral pressures that also influence food eating behaviors, it is easy to appreciate the daunting complexities that arise with the self-regulation of appetite.”
  19. Psychological and neural contributions to appetite self-regulation – Stoeckel – 2017 – Obesity – Wiley Online Library: “Appetite regulation is a complex, multifactorial construct.”
  20. Appetite self-regulation: Environmental and policy influences on eating behaviors – Schwartz – 2017 – Obesity – Wiley Online Library
  21. Comparison between the effect of 6 weeks of morning or evening aerobic exercise on appetite and anthropometric indices: a randomized controlled trial – Alizadeh – 2017 – Clinical Obesity – Wiley Online Library
  22. Effect of 24-h severe energy restriction on appetite regulation and ad libitum energy intake in lean men and women
  23. Effect of sensory perception of foods on appetite and food intake: a review of studies on humans. – PubMed – NCBI
  24. Appetite regulation in response to sitting and energy imbalance. – PubMed – NCBI

 

Body weight regulation, metabolic adaptation, and compensatory mechanisms (22)


  1. Determinants of body weight regulation in humans. – PubMed – NCBI
  2. Eating behavior: lessons from the real world of humans. – PubMed – NCBI
  3. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain
  4. Metabolic adaptation to weight loss: implications for the athlete
  5. Regulation of body weight in humans. – PubMed – NCBI
  6. Regulation of fat metabolism in skeletal muscle
  7. Resistance to exercise-induced weight loss: compensatory behavioral adaptations
  8. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain. – PubMed – NCBI
  9. Hedonics Act in Unison with the Homeostatic System to Unconsciously Control Body Weight
  10. Energy metabolism, fuel selection and body weight regulation
  11. Persistent metabolic adaptation 6 years after “The Biggest Loser” competition – Fothergill – 2016 – Obesity – Wiley Online Library
  12. Obesity Energetics: Body Weight Regulation and the Effects of Diet Composition. – PubMed – NCBI
  13. Metabolic Damage: do Negative Metabolic Adaptations During Underfeeding Persist After Refeeding in Non-Obese Populations?
  14. Autoregulation of body composition during weight recovery in human: the Minnesota Experiment revisited. – PubMed – NCBI
  15. Obesity Energetics: Body Weight Regulation and the Effects of Diet Composition – Gastroenterology
  16. Biology’s response to dieting: the impetus for weight regain: “The preponderance of evidence would suggest that the biological response to weight loss involves comprehensive, persistent, and redundant adaptations in energy homeostasis (…) To be successful in the long term, our strategies for preventing weight regain may need to be just as comprehensive, persistent, and redundant, as the biological adaptations they are attempting to counter.”
  17. The impact of rate of weight loss on body composition and compensatory mechanisms during weight reduction: a randomized control trial – Clinical Nutrition
  18. Attenuating the Biologic Drive for Weight Regain Following Weight Loss: Must What Goes Down Always Go Back Up?
  19. A new look at the science of weight control: how acceptance and commitment strategies can address the challenge of self-regulation. – PubMed – NCBI
  20. Lack of negative autocorrelations of daily food intake on successive days challenges the concept of the regulation of body weight in humans. – PubMed – NCBI
  21. The effect of rate of weight loss on long-term weight regain in adults with overweight and obesity. – PubMed – NCBI
  22. Metabolic and behavioral compensations in response to caloric restriction: implications for the maintenance of weight loss. – PubMed – NCBI

 

Energy expenditure and adaptive thermogenesis (13)

  1. Surgical weight loss: impact on energy expenditure. – PubMed – NCBI
  2. Food intake measured by an automated food-selection system: relationship to energy expenditure. – PubMed – NCBI
  3. Influence of segmental body composition and adiposity hormones on resting metabolic rate and substrate utilization in overweight and obese adults
  4. Adaptive Thermogenesis with Weight Loss in Humans
  5. What is the metabolic and energy cost of sitting, standing and sit/ stand transitions?3
  6. Adaptive thermogenesis can make a difference in the ability of obese individuals to lose body weight. – PubMed – NCBI 
  7. Adaptive thermogenesis with weight loss in humans – Müller – 2013 – Obesity – Wiley Online Library
  8. Models of energy homeostasis in response to maintenance of reduced body weight. – PubMed – NCBI
  9. Changes in Energy Expenditure with Weight Gain and Weight Loss in Humans | SpringerLink
  10. Reciprocal Compensation to Changes in Dietary Intake and Energy Expenditure within the Concept of Energy Balance. – PubMed – NCBI
  11. Energy expenditure and body composition changes after an isocaloric ketogenic diet in overweight and obese men. – PubMed – NCBI
  12. Central neural and endocrine mechanisms of non-exercise activity thermogenesis and their potential impact on obesity. – PubMed – NCBI
  13. Changes in Energy Expenditure with Weight Gain and Weight Loss in Humans

 

Body weight set-point (6)

  1. Is there evidence for a set point that regulates human body weight?
  2. Does gastric bypass surgery change body weight set point?
  3. Do adaptive changes in metabolic rate favor weight regain in weight-reduced individuals? An examination of the set-point theory. – PubMed – NCBI
  4. Mechanisms of Weight Regain following Weight Loss
  5. Obesity Energetics: Body Weight Regulation and the Effects of Diet Composition. – PubMed – NCBI
  6. The selfish brain: competition for energy resources. – PubMed – NCBI

 

CICO / calorie restriction (20)


  1. Caloric restriction. – PubMed – NCBI
  2. Calorie Shifting Diet Versus Calorie Restriction Diet: A Comparative Clinical Trial Study
  3. A 2-Year Randomized Controlled Trial of Human Caloric Restriction: Feasibility and Effects on Predictors of Health Span and Longevity. – PubMed – NCBI
  4. Effects of matched weight loss from calorie restriction, exercise, or both on cardiovascular disease risk factors: a randomized intervention trial. – PubMed – NCBI
  5. Effect of Two-Year Caloric Restriction on Bone Metabolism and Bone Mineral Density in Non-Obese Younger Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial. – PubMed – NCBI
  6. Differences in Insulin Resistance Do Not Predict Weight Loss in Response to Hypocaloric Diets in Healthy Obese Women
  7. Weight loss on low-fat vs. low-carbohydrate diets by insulin resistance status among overweight adults and adults with obesity: A randomized pilot … – PubMed – NCBI
  8. Discrepancy between self-reported and actual caloric intake and exercise in obese subjects. – PubMed – NCBI: “The failure of some obese subjects to lose weight while eating a diet they report as low in calories is due to an energy intake substantially higher than reported and an overestimation of physical activity, not to an abnormality in thermogenesis.”
  9. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity. – PubMed – NCBI
  10. Body-composition changes in the Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE)-2 study: a 2-y randomized cont… – PubMed – NCBI: “Two years of CR had broadly favorable effects on both whole-body and regional adiposity that could facilitate health span in humans. The decrements in FFM were commensurate with the reduced body mass; although men in the CR group lost more FFM than the women did, the percentage of FFM in the men in the CR group was higher than at baseline. ”
  11. Effects of Calorie Restriction in Healthy Nonobese Adults | Lifestyle Behaviors | JAMA Internal Medicine | The JAMA Network
  12. Energy balance and obesity: what are the main drivers? – PubMed – NCBI: “Energy intake that exceeds energy expenditure is the main driver of weight gain. The quality of the diet may exert its effect on energy balance through complex hormonal and neurological pathways that influence satiety and possibly through other mechanisms. The food environment, marketing of unhealthy foods and urbanization, and reduction in sedentary behaviors and physical activity play important roles.”
  13. Quantification of the effect of energy imbalance on bodyweight. – PubMed – NCBI
  14. Reduced Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Diets Do Not Increase the Effects of Energy Restriction on Weight Loss and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Men and Women
  15. A critical review of low-carbohydrate diets in people with Type 2 diabetes. – PubMed – NCBI: “Total energy intake remains the dietary predictor of body weight.”
  16. Fat loss depends on energy deficit only, independently of the method for weight loss. – PubMed – NCBI
  17. Protein-Pacing Caloric-Restriction Enhances Body Composition Similarly in Obese Men and Women during Weight Loss and Sustains Efficacy during Long-Term Weight Maintenance
  18. Comparison of three methods to reduce energy density. Effects on daily energy intake. – PubMed – NCBI
  19. A Calorie is Still a Calorie, According to Rigorous New Evidence (PDF Download Available)
  20. Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. – PubMed – NCBI: “Reduced-calorie diets result in clinically meaningful weight loss regardless of which macronutrients they emphasize.”

 

Competition, bodybuilders, and elite athletes (5)


  1. Lower limit of body fat in healthy active men. – PubMed – NCBI “Our results suggest that 4-6% BF or approximately 2.5 kg fat represents the lower limit for healthy men, as assessed by DEXA or by underwater weighing.”
  2. The Effects of Intensive Weight Reduction on Body Composition and Serum Hormones in Female Fitness Competitors. – PubMed – NCBI
  3. Nutritional status of nationally ranked elite bodybuilders. – PubMed – NCBI
  4. Food selection patterns of bodybuilders. – PubMed – NCBI
  5. Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body composition (PDF Download Available)

 

Diet adherence (18)


  1. A brief motivational intervention to improve dietary adherence in adolescents
  2. Adherence to Diet Applications Using a Smartphone Was Associated With Weight Loss in Healthy Overweight Adults Irrespective of the Application. – PubMed – NCBI
  3. Adherence to Diets for Weight Loss
  4. Dietary adherence and weight loss success among overweight women: results from the A TO Z weight loss study. – PubMed – NCBI
  5. A Concept Analysis: Adherence and Weight Loss – Shay – 2008 – Nursing Forum – Wiley Online Library
  6. Adherence and Success in Long-Term Weight Loss Diets: The Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial (DIRECT): Journal of the American College of Nutrition: Vol 28, No 2
  7. Effect of dietary adherence on the body weight plateau: a mathematical model incorporating intermittent compliance with energy intake prescription. – PubMed – NCBI
  8. Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone Diets for Weight Loss and Heart Disease Risk Reduction | Cardiology | JAMA | The JAMA Network
  9. Adherence to a Low-Fat versus Low-Carbohydrate Diet Differs by Insulin Resistance Status 
  10. Adherence and success in long-term weight loss diets: the dietary intervention randomized controlled trial (DIRECT). – PubMed – NCBI 
  11. A concept analysis: adherence and weight loss. – PubMed – NCBI 
  12. Dietary adherence and weight loss success among overweight women: results from the A TO Z weight loss study 
  13. Adherence to low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets in relation to weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors – Hu – 2016 – Obesity Science & Practice – Wiley Online Library 
  14. Effect of dietary adherence on the body weight plateau: A mathematical model incorporating intermittent compliance with energy intake prescription (PDF Download Available) 
  15. The Benefits of Behaving Badly on Occasion: Successful Regulation by Planned Hedonic Deviations 
  16. Factors associated with participation in resistance training: a systematic review. – PubMed – NCBI 
  17. Effect of Dietary Adherence with or without Exercise on Weight Loss: A Mechanistic Approach to a Global Problem 
  18. Adherence is a multi-dimensional construct in the POUNDS LOST trial. – PubMed – NCBI

 

Diet variety (1)


  1. Dietary variety, energy regulation, and obesity. – PubMed – NCBI

 

Exercise, body composition, and weight loss (26)


  1. Effect of caloric deficit and dietary manipulation on aerobic and anaerobic exercise. – PubMed – NCBI
  2. Effect of exercise intensity and mode on acute appetite control in men and women – Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
  3. Effects of exercise and restrained eating behaviour on appetite control. – PubMed – NCBI 
  4. Effects of exercise on appetite control: implications for energy balance. – PubMed – NCBI
  5. Effects of High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise Training on Appetite Regulation. – PubMed – NCBI
  6. Efficacy of Exercise Intervention for Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese Adolescents: Meta-Analysis and Implications (PDF Download Available): “The current evidence suggests that exercise intervention in overweight and obese adolescents improves body composition, particularly by lowering body fat.”
  7. Exercise-induced suppression of appetite: effects on food intake and implications for energy balance. – PubMed – NCBI
  8. High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Fat Loss
  9. High-Intensity Interval Training and Isocaloric Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training Result in Similar Improvements in Body Composition and Fitne… – PubMed – NCBI
  10. Mechanisms of appetite suppression after high intensity exercise in lean and obese boys
  11. The Effect of Intensity of Exercise on Appetite and Food Intake in Post-Exercise Period
  12. Acute and long-term effects of exercise on appetite control: is there any benefit for weight control? – PubMed – NCBI
  13. Weight training, aerobic physical activities, and long-term waist circumference change in men. – PubMed – NCBI
  14. Concurrent aerobic plus resistance exercise versus aerobic exercise alone to improve health outcomes in paediatric obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis — García-Hermoso et al. — British Journal of Sports Medicine
  15. Effect of exercising while fasting on eating behaviors and food intake
  16. Exercise for overweight or obesity. – PubMed – NCBI
  17. Acute exercise and subsequent energy intake. A meta-analysis. – PubMed – NCBI
  18. The effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise training on fat loss and fasting insulin levels of young women. – PubMed – NCBI
  19. Impact of exercise intensity on body fatness and skeletal muscle metabolism. – PubMed – NCBI
  20. Metabolic and behavioral compensatory responses to exercise interventions: barriers to weight loss. – PubMed – NCBI
  21. Body composition changes associated with fasted versus non-fasted aerobic exercise
  22. Exercising fasting or fed to enhance fat loss? Influence of food intake on respiratory ratio and excess postexercise oxygen consumption after a bou… – PubMed – NCBI
  23. Individual Variation in Hunger, Energy Intake, and Ghrelin Responses to Acute Exercise
  24. Comparison between the effect of 6 weeks of morning or evening aerobic exercise on appetite and anthropometric indices: a randomized controlled trial – Alizadeh – 2017 – Clinical Obesity – Wiley Online Library
  25. Comparison between the effect of 6 weeks of morning or evening aerobic exercise on appetite and anthropometric indices: a randomized controlled trial – Alizadeh – 2017 – Clinical Obesity – Wiley Online Library
  26. Interval training in the fed or fasted state improves body composition and muscle oxidative capacity in overweight women. – PubMed – NCBI

 

Regional fat loss with training (4)

  1. The effect of abdominal exercise on abdominal fat. – PubMed – NCBI
  2. Effects of Sit up Exercise Training on Adipose Cell Size and Adiposity: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport: Vol 55, No 3 
  3. Regional fat changes induced by localized muscle endurance resistance training. – PubMed – NCBI
  4. Are blood flow and lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue influenced by contractions in adjacent muscles in humans? | Endocrinology and Metabolism

 

Exercise vs. diet: which one is better, and should we do them together? (14)


  1. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of exercise training versus hypocaloric diet: distinct effects on body weight and visceral adipose tissue – Verheggen – 2016 – Obesity Reviews – Wiley Online Library 
  2. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of exercise training versus hypocaloric diet: distinct effects on body weight and visceral adi… – PubMed – NCBI 
  3. A systematic review and meta-analysis of interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training on body adiposity. – PubMed – NCBI 
  4. The effects of exercise training in addition to energy restriction on functional capacities and body composition in obese adults during weight loss… – PubMed – NCBI 
  5. High-Intensity Interval Training and Isocaloric Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training Result in Similar Improvements in Body Composition and Fitness in Obese Individuals 
  6. Concurrent aerobic plus resistance exercise versus aerobic exercise alone to improve health outcomes in paediatric obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis — García-Hermoso et al. — British Journal of Sports Medicine 
  7. A new direction in psychology and health: Resistance exercise training for obese children and adolescents 
  8. Diet, exercise or diet with exercise: comparing the effectiveness of treatment options for weight-loss and changes in fitness for adults (18–65 years old) who are overfat, or obese; systematic review and meta-analysis 
  9. Effect of energy restriction and physical exercise intervention on phenotypic flexibility as examined by transcriptomics analyses of mRNA from adipose tissue and whole body magnetic resonance imaging 
  10. A systematic review of the separate and combined effects of energy restriction and exercise on fat-free mass in middle-aged and older adults: impli… – PubMed – NCBI 
  11. Diet Versus Exercise in Weight Loss and Maintenance: Focus on Tryptophan. – PubMed – NCBI 
  12. Meta-analysis: effect of exercise, with or without dieting, on the body composition of overweight subjects. – PubMed – NCBI 
  13. Lower extremity muscle size and strength and aerobic capacity decrease with caloric restriction but not with exercise-induced weight loss. – PubMed – NCBI
  14. The impact of exercise and diet restriction on daily energy expenditure. – PubMed – NCBI

 

Flexible dieting (4)


  1. Flexible vs. Rigid dieting strategies: relationship with adverse behavioral outcomes. – PubMed – NCBI 
  2. Rigid vs. flexible dieting: association with eating disorder symptoms in nonobese women. – PubMed – NCBI
  3. Cognitive and weight-related correlates of flexible and rigid restrained eating behaviour. – PubMed – NCBI
  4. Food cravings mediate the relationship between rigid, but not flexible control of eating behavior and dieting success. – PubMed – NCBI

 

Food menus and pre-planned meals (1)


  1. Food provision as a strategy to promote weight loss. – PubMed – NCBI

 

Fasting for fat loss (intermittent, alternate day) (19)


  1. A randomized pilot study comparing zero-calorie alternate-day fasting to daily caloric restriction in adults with obesity – Catenacci – 2016 – Obesity – Wiley Online Library
  2. Do intermittent diets provide physiological benefits over continuous diets for weight loss? A systematic review of clinical trials. – PubMed – NCBI
  3. Fasting for weight loss: an effective strategy or latest dieting trend? – PubMed – NCBI
  4. Short-term modified alternate-day fasting: a novel dietary strategy for weight loss and cardioprotection in obese adults
  5. Weight-Loss Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Intermittent Energy Restriction Trials Lasting a Minimum of 6 Months
  6. Determinants of weight loss success with alternate day fasting – Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
  7. Intermittent versus daily calorie restriction: which diet regimen is more effective for weight loss? – Varady – 2011 – Obesity Reviews – Wiley Online Library 
  8. Intermittent fasting vs daily calorie restriction for type 2 diabetes prevention: a review of human findings
  9. The Protein-Sparing Modified Fast Diet: An Effective and Safe Approach to Induce Rapid Weight Loss in Severely Obese Adolescents. – PubMed – NCBI
  10. A Clinical Study of Protein Sparing Modified Fast (PSMF) Administered Preoperatively to Morbidly Obese Patients: comparison of PSMF with natural fo… – PubMed – NCBI
  11. Results of the treatment of obesity with a protein-sparing modified fast. – PubMed – NCBI
  12. Multidisciplinary treatment of obesity with a protein-sparing modified fast: results in 668 outpatients.
  13. A randomized pilot study comparing zero-calorie alternate-day fasting to daily caloric restriction in adults with obesity. – PubMed – NCBI
  14. Changes in hunger and fullness in relation to gut peptides before and after 8 weeks of alternate day fasting. – PubMed – NCBI
  15. Dietary and physical activity adaptations to alternate day modified fasting: implications for optimal weight loss. – PubMed – NCBI
  16. FEEDING INFLUENCES ADIPOSE TISSUE RESPONSES TO EXERCISE IN OVERWEIGHT MEN. – PubMed – NCBI
  17. Compensatory mechanisms activated with intermittent energy restriction: A randomized control trial – Clinical Nutrition
  18. Effect of Alternate-Day Fasting Among Metabolically Healthy Obese Adults | Lifestyle Behaviors | JAMA Internal Medicine | The JAMA Network
  19. The effect of intermittent energy and carbohydrate restriction v. daily energy restriction on weight loss and metabolic disease risk markers in ove… – PubMed – NCBI

 

Fast food, candy, soft drinks  (1)


  1. Fast food, soft drink and candy intake is unrelated to body mass index for 95% of American adults – Just – 2015 – Obesity Science & Practice – Wiley Online Library

 

Glycogen and water loss (5)


  1. Glycogen storage: illusions of easy weight loss, excessive weight regain, and distortions in estimates of body composition. – PubMed – NCBI
  2. Effect of glycogen loading on skeletal muscle cross-sectional area and T2 relaxation time (Nygren et al., 2001)
  3. Resistance training promotes increase in intracellular hydration in men and women (Ribero et al., 2014)
  4. Effect of an Acute High Carbohydrate Diet on Body Composition Using DXA in Young Men (Rouillier et al., 2015)
  5. Manipulation of Muscle Creatine and Glycogen Changes DXA Estimates of Body Composition (Bone et al., 2016)

 

Genetics (9)


  1. FTO genotype and weight loss: systematic review and meta-analysis of 9563 individual participant data from eight randomised controlled trials | The BMJ “These findings show that individuals carrying the minor allele respond equally well to dietary, physical activity, or drug based weight loss interventions and thus genetic predisposition to obesity associated with the FTO minor allele can be at least partly counteracted through such interventions”
  2. Genetic variants influencing effectiveness of exercise training programmes in obesity – an overview of human studies
  3. The thin-fat phenotype and global metabolic disease risk
  4. The Role of Macronutrient Content in the Diet for Weight Management. – PubMed – NCBI
  5. Longitudinal weight differences, gene expression and blood biomarkers in BMI-discordant identical twins
  6. Two novel candidate genes identified in adults from the Newfoundland population with addictive tendencies towards food. – PubMed – NCBI
  7. Dietary Protein Modifies the Effect of the MC4R Genotype on 2-Year Changes in Appetite and Food Craving: The POUNDS Lost Trial
  8. Driven to Be Inactive?—The Genetics of Physical Activity
  9. A mathematical model of weight loss under total starvation: evidence against the thrifty-gene hypothesis. – PubMed – NCBI

 

Hormones (12)


  1. Rapid adaptations of serum thyrotrophin, triiodothyronine and reverse triiodothyronine levels to short-term starvation and refeeding. – PubMed – NCBI
  2. Low calorie dieting increases cortisol. – PubMed – NCBI
  3. The ghrelin and leptin responses to short-term starvation vs a carbohydrate-free diet in men with type 2 diabetes; a controlled, cross-over design study | Nutrition & Metabolism | Full Text
  4. Elevated ghrelin predicts food intake during experimental sleep restriction. – PubMed – NCBI
  5. Adaptations of leptin, ghrelin or insulin during weight loss as predictors of weight regain: a review of current literature
  6. The Hormonal Control of Food Intake: “The genetic evidence for a critical role of leptin and its downstream anorexigenic pathways in the control of food intake is extremely strong and highly suggestive of a system with little redundancy.”
  7. Possible entrainment of ghrelin to habitual meal patterns in humans. – PubMed – NCBI
  8. Effects of a fixed meal pattern on ghrelin secretion: evidence for a learned response independent of nutrient status. – PubMed – NCBI
  9. Systematic review and meta-analysis reveals acutely elevated plasma cortisol following fasting but not less severe calorie restriction:
  10. Effects of testosterone treatment on body fat and lean mass in obese men on a hypocaloric diet: a randomised controlled trial. – PubMed – NCBI
  11. How does obesity affect the endocrine system? A narrative review. – PubMed – NCBI
  12. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the regulation of energy balance : Nature Reviews Endocrinology : Nature Research

 

How quickly we could and should lose fat (5)


  1. A limit on the energy transfer rate from the human fat store in hypophagia
  2. What is the Required Energy Deficit per unit Weight Loss?
  3. Muscle, Strength, and Fat-Loss Targets to Set Realistic Training Goals
  4. Big Fitness Project: Successful Dieting [5/5]: Weight Loss Rate
  5. The association between rate of initial weight loss and long-term success in obesity treatment: does slow and steady win the race? – PubMed – NCBI

 

Individual variability (low and high responders) (2)


  1. Circulating MicroRNA Responses between ‘High’ and ‘Low’ Responders to a 16-Wk Diet and Exercise Weight Loss Intervention
  2. Differences in weight loss and health outcomes among African Americans and whites in multicentre trials. – PubMed – NCBI

 

Muscle mass (7)


  1. Weight Loss Composition is One-Fourth Fat-Free Mass: A Critical Review and Critique of This Widely Cited Rule
  2. The Role of Diet and Exercise for the Maintenance of Fat-Free Mass and Resting Metabolic Rate During Weight Loss (PDF Download Available)
  3. Changes in fat-free mass during significant weight loss: a systematic review. – PubMed – NCBI
  4. Dietary Protein and Exercise Have Additive Effects on Body Composition during Weight Loss in Adult Women
  5. Normal vs. high-protein weight loss diets in men: effects on body composition and indices of metabolic syndrome. – PubMed – NCBI
  6. Normal Protein Intake Is Required for Body Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance, and Elevated Protein Intake for Additional Preservation of Resting Energy Expenditure and Fat Free Mass
  7. Resistance weight training during caloric restriction enhances lean body weight maintenance.

 

Maintaining lost weight and long-term weight loss (20)


  1. Long-term maintenance of weight loss: current status. – PubMed – NCBI
  2. Long-term weight loss maintenance
  3. Weight loss maintenance: A review on dietary related strategies. – PubMed – NCBI
  4. Long term weight maintenance after advice to consume low carbohydrate, higher protein diets – A systematic review and meta analysis: “The short term benefit of higher protein diets appears to persist to a small degree long term. Benefits are greater with better compliance to the diet.”
  5. The maintenance of energy balance is compromised after weight loss. – PubMed – NCBI
  6. Does the method of weight loss effect long-term changes in weight, body composition or chronic disease risk factors in overweight or obese adults? … – PubMed – NCBI
  7. Maintaining Weight Loss: an Ongoing Challenge. – PubMed – NCBI
  8. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain. – PubMed – NCBI
  9. Behavioral Predictors of Weight Regain after Bariatric Surgery | SpringerLink
  10. Long-term Weight Regain after Gastric Bypass: A 5-year Prospective Study | SpringerLink
  11. Who succeeds in maintaining weight loss? A conceptual review of factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain – Elfhag – 2005 – Obesity Reviews – Wiley Online Library
  12. Behavioural correlates of successful weight reduction over 3 y. Results from the Lean Habits Study. – PubMed – NCBI
  13. Long-term weight loss maintenance for obesity: a multidisciplinary approach
  14. Weight loss maintenance in African American women: a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention literature. – PubMed – NCBI
  15. Who succeeds in maintaining weight loss? A conceptual review of factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain. – PubMed – NCBI
  16. Monitoring and Feedback for Long-term Weight Loss | Lifestyle Behaviors | JAMA | The JAMA Network
  17. Primary care weight loss maintenance with behavioral nutrition: An observational study. – PubMed – NCBI
  18. Long-Term Weight Maintenance after a 17-Week Weight Loss Intervention with or without a One-Year Maintenance Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial
  19. The effect of rate of weight loss on long-term weight management: A randomised controlled trial
  20. Effects of dietary composition on energy expenditure during weight-loss maintenance. – PubMed – NCBI

 

Micronutrient deficiency (2)


  1. Micronutrient Deficiency in Obese Subjects Undergoing Low Calorie Diet (PDF Download Available)
  2. The Malnutrition of Obesity: Micronutrient Deficiencies That Promote Diabetes

 

Macronutrients and weight loss (10)


  1. Comparison of Weight-Loss Diets with Different Compositions of Fat, Protein, and Carbohydrates: “Reduced-calorie diets result in clinically meaningful weight loss regardless of which macronutrients they emphasize”
  2. Low Carbohydrate versus Isoenergetic Balanced Diets for Reducing Weight and Cardiovascular Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PDF Download Available): “Trials show weight loss in the short-term irrespective of whether the diet is low CHO or balanced.”
  3. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat/low-calorie diets in the management of obesity and its comorbidities: “Evidence from this systematic review demonstrates that low-carbohydrate/high-protein diets are more effective at 6 months and are as effective, if not more, as low-fat diets in reducing weight and cardiovascular disease risk up to 1 year.”
  4. The Macronutrients, Appetite, and Energy Intake. – PubMed – NCBI
  5. The Role of Macronutrient Content in the Diet for Weight Management. – PubMed – NCBI
  6. A randomized trial of high-dairy-protein, variable-carbohydrate diets and exercise on body composition in adults with obesity. – PubMed – NCBI: “Compared to a healthy control diet, energy-restricted high-protein diets containing different proportions of fat and CHO confer no advantage to weight loss or change in body composition in the presence of an appropriate exercise stimulus.”
  7. Weight loss on low-fat vs. low-carbohydrate diets by insulin resistance status among overweight adults and adults with obesity: A randomized pilot … – PubMed – NCBI
  8. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity. – PubMed – NCBI
  9. Differences in fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism between lean and obese subjects undergoing total starvation. – PubMed – NCBI
  10. Physiogenomic Analysis of Weight Loss Induced by Dietary Carbohydrate Restriction

 

Carbohydrates (8)

  1. Do Carbohydrates Control Body Fat? – Science Driven Nutrition
  2. Carbohydrates, performance and weight loss low the way to go or the way to bonk? (PDF Download Available)
  3. Effects of carbohydrate quantity and glycemic index on resting metabolic rate and body composition during weight loss – Karl – 2015 – Obesity – Wiley Online Library
  4. Evidence-based review on the effect of normal dietary consumption of fructose on development of hyperlipidemia and obesity in healthy, normal weigh… – PubMed – NCBI
  5. Reduced dietary intake of simple sugars alters perceived sweet taste intensity but not perceived pleasantness. – PubMed – NCBI
  6. Carbohydrate craving: not everything is sweet. – PubMed – NCBI
  7. Is a calorie really a calorie? Metabolic advantage of low-carbohydrate diets. – PubMed – NCBI
  8. Sugar addiction: the state of the science | SpringerLink

 

Protein (20)

  1. A Brief Review of Higher Dietary Protein Diets in Weight Loss: A Focus on Athletes
  2. A systematic review of dietary protein during caloric restriction in resistance trained lean athletes: a case for higher intakes. – PubMed – NCBI
  3. Diets higher in animal and plant protein are associated with lower adiposity and do not impair kidney function in US adults
  4. Effect of dairy proteins on appetite, energy expenditure, body weight, and composition: a review of the evidence from controlled clinical trials. – PubMed – NCBI
  5. Higher compared with lower dietary protein during an energy deficit combined with intense exercise promotes greater lean mass gain and fat mass loss: A randomized trial
  6. Dairy Intake Enhances Body Weight and Composition Changes during Energy Restriction in 18–50-Year-Old Adults—A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
  7. Protein leverage and energy intake
  8. The effect of (L-)carnitine on weight loss in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. – PubMed – NCBI “subjects who received carnitine lost significantly more weight (MD: -1.33 kg; 95% CI: -2.09 to -0.57) and showed a decrease in body mass index (MD: -0.47 kg m(-2) ; 95% CI: -0.88 to -0.05) compared with the control group.”
  9. Optimized dietary strategies to protect skeletal muscle mass during periods of unavoidable energy deficit
  10. The Effects of Increased Protein Intake on Fullness: A Meta-Analysis and Its Limitations. – PubMed – NCBI “The present analyses show that higher protein preloads increase fullness ratings more than lower protein preloads under tightly defined conditions. Extrapolation of findings to common conditions outside the specified criteria of this analysis must be made cautiously, as must speculation about the influence of fullness sensations on ingestive behavior, body weight, and various health outcomes”
  11. Whey protein consumption after resistance exercise reduces energy intake at a post-exercise meal | SpringerLink
  12. Proteins and satiety: implications for weight management. – PubMed – NCBI
  13. Protein-induced satiety: effects and mechanisms of different proteins. – PubMed – NCBI
  14. The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis, satiety and weight loss: a critical review. – PubMed – NCBI: “There is convincing evidence that a higher protein intake increases thermogenesis and satiety compared to diets of lower protein content. The weight of evidence also suggests that high protein meals lead to a reduced subsequent energy intake.”
  15. Dietary protein, weight loss, and weight maintenance. – PubMed – NCBI: “This review provides an overview of how sustaining absolute protein intake affects metabolic targets for weight loss and weight maintenance during negative energy balance, i.e., sustaining satiety and energy expenditure and sparing fat-free mass, resulting in energy inefficiency.”
  16. The role of protein in weight loss and maintenance (PDF Download Available)
  17. Long term weight maintenance after advice to consume low carbohydrate, higher protein diets – A systematic review and meta analysis: “The short term benefit of higher protein diets appears to persist to a small degree long term. Benefits are greater with better compliance to the diet.”
  18. Dietary Protein and Exercise Have Additive Effects on Body Composition during Weight Loss in Adult Women
  19. Normal vs. high-protein weight loss diets in men: effects on body composition and indices of metabolic syndrome. – PubMed – NCBI
  20. Normal Protein Intake Is Required for Body Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance, and Elevated Protein Intake for Additional Preservation of Resting Energy Expenditure and Fat Free Mass

 

Dietary fat (2)

  1. Overfeeding Polyunsaturated and Saturated Fat Causes Distinct Effects on Liver and Visceral Fat Accumulation in Humans | Diabetes
  2. Visceral adiposity and metabolic syndrome after very high–fat and low-fat isocaloric diets: a randomized controlled trial

 

Meal frequency and meal timing (21)


  1. A controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adults. – PubMed – NCBI
  2. Effects of increased meal frequency on fat oxidation and perceived hunger. – PubMed – NCBI
  3. Evidence for Efficacy and Effectiveness of Changes in Eating Frequency for Body Weight Management (PDF Download Available)
  4. Increased Eating Frequency Is Associated with Lower Obesity Risk, But Higher Energy Intake in Adults: A Meta-Analysis (PDF Download Available)
  5. Irregular meal-pattern effects on energy expenditure, metabolism, and appetite regulation: a randomized controlled trial in healthy normal-weight w… – PubMed – NCBI
  6. Physiological responses to food intake throughout the day. – PubMed – NCBI
  7. Potential role of meal frequency as a strategy for weight loss and health in overweight or obese adults. – PubMed – NCBI
  8. The causal role of breakfast in energy balance and health: a randomized controlled trial in lean adults. – PubMed – NCBI
  9. The effectiveness of breakfast recommendations on weight loss: a randomized controlled trial. – PubMed – NCBI
  10. What Causes Humans to Begin and End a Meal? A Role for Memory for What Has Been Eaten, as Evidenced by a Study of Multiple Meal Eating in Amnesic Patients
  11. The effect of eating frequency on appetite control and food intake: brief synopsis of controlled feeding studies. – PubMed – NCBI
  12. Dietary pulses, satiety and food intake: a systematic review and meta-analysis of acute feeding trials. – PubMed – NCBI
  13. Frequency of feeding, weight reduction and energy metabolism. – PubMed – NCBI
  14. Timing of food intake predicts weight loss effectiveness. – PubMed – NCBI
  15. The effectiveness of breakfast recommendations on weight loss: a randomized controlled trial
  16. Eating Frequency, Food Intake, and Weight: A Systematic Review of Human and Animal Experimental Studies
  17. Greater weight loss and hormonal changes after 6 months diet with carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner. – PubMed – NCBI
  18. Effects of meal frequency on weight loss and body composition: A meta-analysis (PDF Download Available)
  19. Understanding meal patterns: definitions, methodology and impact on nutrient intake and diet quality
  20. Beneficial effect of high energy intake at lunch rather than dinner on weight loss in healthy obese women in a weight-loss program: a randomized cl… – PubMed – NCBI
  21. Impact of breakfast skipping compared with dinner skipping on regulation of energy balance and metabolic risk

 

Mechanisms (10)


  1. Dynamics of fat cell turnover in humans (PDF Download Available)
  2. Is a calorie a calorie? – PubMed – NCBI
  3. Optimizing fat oxidation through exercise and diet. – PubMed – NCBI
  4. Exercise-Mediated Effects on White and Brown Adipose Tissue Plasticity and Metabolism. – PubMed – NCBI
  5. Maximal fat oxidation during exercise in trained men. – PubMed – NCBI
  6. Substrate oxidation differences between high- and low-intensity exercise are compensated over 24 hours in obese men – ProQuest
  7. Cycling our way to fit fat. – PubMed – NCBI
  8. Strategies to enhance fat utilisation during exercise. – PubMed – NCBI
  9. Fat cell turnover in humans 
  10. Dynamics of fat cell turnover in humans. – PubMed – NCBI

 

Neurology, the brain, and the reward system (19)


  1. Brain imaging demonstrates a reduced neural impact of eating in obesity – Puzziferri – 2016 – Obesity – Wiley Online Library
  2. Central Neural and Endocrine Mechanisms of Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis and Their Potential Impact on Obesity – Novak – 2007
  3. Food reward system: current perspectives and future research needs
  4. Nutrition & Diabetes – Pilot randomized trial demonstrating reversal of obesity-related abnormalities in reward system responsivity to food cues with a behavioral intervention
  5. The Brain, Appetite, and Obesity
  6. The physiology of willpower: linking blood glucose to self-control. – PubMed – NCBI
  7. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity. – PubMed – NCBI
  8. Forebrain networks and the control of feeding by environmental learned cues. – PubMed – NCBI
  9. The Role of Reward Circuitry and Food Addiction in the Obesity Epidemic: An Update. – PubMed – NCBI
  10. Is your brain to blame for weight regain? – PubMed – NCBI
  11. Sensory-specific satiety and its importance in meal termination. – PubMed – NCBI
  12. Food liking, food wanting, and sensory-specific satiety. – PubMed – NCBI
  13. Food and drug addictions: Similarities and differences. – PubMed – NCBI
  14. Food liking, food wanting, and sensory-specific satiety
  15. Sensory-specific satiety is intact in amnesics who eat multiple meals
  16. Blaming the brain for obesity: Integration of hedonic and homeostatic mechanisms. – PubMed – NCBI
  17. Psychological and neural contributions to appetite self-regulation – Stoeckel – 2017 – Obesity – Wiley Online Library: “Appetite regulation is a complex, multifactorial construct.”
  18. Reward-Induced Eating: Therapeutic Approaches to Addressing Food Cravings
  19. Hunger and Satiety Gauge Reward Sensitivity | Endocrinology

 

Palatability: how good the food tastes (2)


  1. Palatability and intake relationships in free-living humans. characterization and independence of influence in North Americans. – PubMed – NCBI
  2. Reduced dietary intake of simple sugars alters perceived sweet taste intensity but not perceived pleasantness

 

Psychology, willpower, and motivation (17)


  1. Born Fat: The Relations Between Weight Changeability Beliefs and Health Behaviors and Physical Health
  2. Cognitive neuroscience of self-regulation failure. – PubMed – NCBI
  3. How does thinking in Black and White terms relate to eating behavior and weight regain? – PubMed – NCBI
  4. The benefits of behaving badly on occasion: Successful regulation by planned hedonic deviations
  5. The physiology of willpower: linking blood glucose to self-control. – PubMed – NCBI
  6. Why self-control seems (but may not be) limited. – PubMed – NCBI
  7. Psychological effects of dieting. – PubMed – NCBI
  8. Acute Stress Impairs Self-Control in Goal-Directed Choice by Altering Multiple Functional Connections within the Brain’s Decision Circuits: Neuron
  9. The efficacy of nudge theory strategies in influencing adult dietary behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis. – PubMed – NCBI
  10. A comparison of acceptance- and control-based strategies for coping with food cravings: an analog study. – PubMed – NCBI
  11. The effect of deprivation on food cravings and eating behavior in restrained and unrestrained eaters. – PubMed – NCBI
  12. Family and friends produce greater social facilitation of food intake than other companions. – PubMed – NCBI
  13. Metabolic vs. hedonic obesity: a conceptual distinction and its clinical implications. – PubMed – NCBI
  14. Hedonics Act in Unison with the Homeostatic System to Unconsciously Control Body Weight
  15. Restrained Eating and Food Cues: Recent Findings and Conclusions. – PubMed – NCBI
  16. Food cravings prospectively predict decreases in perceived self-regulatory success in dieting. – PubMed – NCBI
  17. A commentary on the “eating addiction” versus “food addiction” perspectives on addictive-like food consumption. – PubMed – NCBI

 

Sleep and weight loss (23)


  1. A single night of sleep deprivation increases ghrelin levels and feelings of hunger in normal-weight healthy men. – PubMed – NCBI
  2. Insufficient sleep undermines dietary efforts to reduce adiposity
  3. Short Sleep Duration Is Associated with Reduced Leptin, Elevated Ghrelin, and Increased Body Mass Index
  4. Acute partial sleep deprivation increases food intake in healthy men
  5. [Sleep deprivation as a risk factor for obesity]. – PubMed – NCBI
  6. Partial sleep deprivation and energy balance in adults: an emerging issue for consideration by dietetics practitioners. – PubMed – NCBI
  7. Phenotypic Stability of Energy Balance Responses to Experimental Total Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Restriction in Healthy Adults. – PubMed – NCBI
  8. Effects of poor and short sleep on glucose metabolism and obesity risk
  9. Sleep and obesity. – PubMed – NCBI
  10. Does inadequate sleep play a role in vulnerability to obesity?
  11. Update on energy homeostasis and insufficient sleep. – PubMed – NCBI
  12. Daytime Sleepiness in Obesity: Mechanisms Beyond Obstructive Sleep Apnea—A Review
  13. The role of sleep duration in the regulation of energy balance: effects on energy intakes and expenditure. – PubMed – NCBI
  14. An Integrative Review of Sleep for Nutrition Professionals
  15. Association between sleep deficiency and cardiometabolic disease: implications for health disparities. – PubMed – NCBI
  16. Elevated ghrelin predicts food intake during experimental sleep restriction. – PubMed – NCBI
  17. No effect of 24 h severe energy restriction on appetite regulation and ad libitum energy intake in overweight and obese males. – PubMed – NCBI
  18. The circadian clock, metabolism and obesity. – PubMed – NCBI
  19. The metabolic burden of sleep loss. – PubMed – NCBI
  20. Short-term sleep loss decreases physical activity under free-living conditions but does not increase food intake under time-deprived laboratory conditions in healthy men
  21. Effect of shortened sleep on energy expenditure, core body temperature, and appetite: a human randomised crossover trial
  22. Acute sleep deprivation increases portion size and affects food choice in young men. – PubMed – NCBI
  23. Phenotypic vulnerability of energy balance responses to sleep loss in healthy adults

 

Intuitive eating (6)


  1. The acceptance model of intuitive eating: a comparison of women in emerging adulthood, early adulthood, and middle adulthood. – PubMed – NCBI 
  2. Weight science: evaluating the evidence for a paradigm shift. – PubMed – NCBI 
  3. Size acceptance and intuitive eating improve health for obese, female chronic dieters. – PubMed – NCBI
  4. Intuitive eating in young adults: Who is doing it, and how is it related to disordered eating behaviors?
  5. Can patients with eating disorders learn to eat intuitively? A 2-year pilot study. – PubMed – NCBI
  6. Is intuitive eating the same as flexible dietary control? Their links to each other and well-being could provide an answer. – PubMed – NCBI

 

Water (3)


  1. Association between water consumption and body weight outcomes: a systematic review
  2. Drinking Water Is Associated With Weight Loss in Overweight Dieting Women Independent of Diet and Activity – Stookey – 2008 – Obesity – Wiley Online Library
  3. Beneficial effects of replacing diet beverages with water on type 2 diabetic obese women following a hypo-energetic diet: A randomized, 24-week cli… – PubMed – NCBI

 

Weight loss diets, strategies, and programs (15)


  1. Efficacy of a randomized trial examining commercial weight loss programs and exercise on metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese women – Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
  2. Effects of a 10,000 steps per day goal in overweight adults. – PubMed – NCBI
  3. Comparison of strategies for sustaining weight loss: the weight loss maintenance randomized controlled trial. – PubMed – NCBI
  4. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Appropriate intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. – PubMed – NCBI
  5. Effect of 7-minute workout on weight and body composition. – PubMed – NCBI
  6. Long-term effects of weight-reducing diets in people with hypertension. – PubMed – NCBI
  7. Dietary and Behavioral Approaches in the Management of Obesity. – PubMed – NCBI
  8. Autoregulation of body composition during weight recovery in human: the Minnesota Experiment revisited. – PubMed – NCBI
  9. Adult weight loss diets: metabolic effects and outcomes. – PubMed – NCBI
  10. Energy intake highs and lows: how much does consistency matter in weight control? – PubMed – NCBI
  11. The Benefits of Behaving Badly on Occasion: Successful Regulation by Planned Hedonic Deviations – Forthcoming Articles – Elsevier
  12. Effectiveness of interventions targeting physical activity, nutrition and healthy weight for university and college students: a systematic review and meta-analysis
  13. Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone Diets for Weight Loss and Heart Disease Risk Reduction | Cardiology | JAMA | The JAMA Network
  14. DIETFITS study (diet intervention examining the factors interacting with treatment success) – Study design and methods. – PubMed – NCBI
  15. Effects of diets on adipose tissue. – PubMed – NCBI

 

Individualized strategies (2)

  1. The BestFIT trial: A SMART approach to developing individualized weight loss treatments. – PubMed – NCBI
  2. Personalized weight loss strategies – The role of macronutrient distribution

 

Weight control strategies (2)


  1. A Review of Weight Control Strategies and Their Effects on the Regulation of Hormonal Balance
  2. Weight Management for Athletes and Active Individuals: A Brief Review | SpringerLink

 

Why we get fat (24)


  1. Big Fitness Project: De novo Lipogenesis (The Conversion of Carbs to Fat) in Humans, and How You Get Fat
  2. Energy density, diet composition and palatability: influences on overall food energy intake in humans. – PubMed – NCBI
  3. Nutrient Intakes in Early Life and Risk of Obesity. – PubMed – NCBI
  4. What is really causing the obesity epidemic? A review of reviews in children and adults. – PubMed – NCBI
  5. Chronic Low-Calorie Sweetener Use and Risk of Abdominal Obesity among Older Adults: A Cohort Study
  6. Adenovirus 36 and Obesity: An Overview: “Evidence emerging over the last 20 years supports the hypothesis that viral infections may be associated with obesity in animals and humans. The most widely studied infectious agent possibly linked to obesity is adenovirus 36 (Adv36). Adv36 causes obesity in animals. In humans, Adv36 associates with obesity both in adults and children ”
  7. A review of the carbohydrate-insulin model of obesity (Hall)
  8. Increased portion size leads to increased energy intake in a restaurant meal. – PubMed – NCBI
  9. Increasing the portion size of a packaged snack increases energy intake in men and women. – PubMed – NCBI
  10. Bad popcorn in big buckets: portion size can influence intake as much as taste. – PubMed – NCBI
  11. Collateral fattening: When a deficit in lean body mass drives overeating. – PubMed – NCBI
  12. What have human experimental overfeeding studies taught us about adipose tissue expansion and susceptibility to obesity and metabolic complications[quest]
  13. What have human experimental overfeeding studies taught us about adipose tissue expansion and susceptibility to obesity and metabolic complications? – PubMed – NCBI
  14. Gender, stress in childhood and adulthood, and trajectories of change in body mass. – PubMed – NCBI
  15. Obesity Energetics: Body Weight Regulation and the Effects of Diet Composition. – PubMed – NCBI
  16. Association between Impulsivity and Weight Status in a General Population
  17. Paradoxical Effects of Fruit on Obesity. – PubMed – NCBI: “we analyze and discuss the relationships between fruit and their anti-obesity effects based on numerous possible underlying mechanisms, and we conclude that each type of fruit has different effects on body weight.”
  18. Depression and weight gain: the serotonin connection. – PubMed – NCBI
  19. Subjective mood and energy levels of healthy weight and overweight/obese healthy adults on high-and low-glycemic load experimental diets. – PubMed – NCBI
  20. Relationship between Neuropathic Pain and Obesity. – PubMed – NCBI
  21. Evaluation of a Voluntary Worksite Weight Loss Program on Metabolic Syndrome. – PubMed – NCBI
  22. Fat and carbohydrate overfeeding in humans: different effects on energy storage.
  23. Visceral adiposity and metabolic syndrome after very high–fat and low-fat isocaloric diets: a randomized controlled trial
  24. Eating dependence and weight gain; no human evidence for a ‘sugar-addiction’ model of overweight