Collection of 300+ protein studies (hypertrophy, muscle protein synthesis, etc.)


By:
Adam Tzur
Contact/follow: SCI-FIT’s Facebook page
Last updated: 11.05.2017: Added more BCAA studies

   

Summary


  • Protein aids in building muscle

  • Protein affects mTOR and Akt

  • Protein seems to have protective effects on LBM during weight loss. Several studies show that we can gain muscle mass during a deficit. Even trained lifters. I’ve reviewed this topic in detail before, read the article here

  • Protein might affect satiety (high protein diets might make you eat less food)

  • Reviews suggest that there are few negative effects of higher protein intakes for various health outcomes (assuming, for example, that your kidneys function properly). Protein might probably even improve some health markers. However, there is disagreement in the literature.

  • There may be sex differences in protein metabolism
  • The previous study collection article can be found here

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Note: Reviews are bolded

Practical advice, requirements, and recommendations


  1. Current Concepts and Unresolved Questions in Dietary Protein Requirements and Supplements in Adults (Phillips, 2017)
  2. The Ultimate Guide to Muscle Protein Synthesis
  3. Big Fitness Project: How much protein can you store?
  4. Dietary protein for athletes: From requirements to optimum adaptation
  5. What is the Optimal Amount of Protein to Support Post-Exercise Skeletal Muscle Reconditioning in the Older Adult?
  6. A review of issues of dietary protein intake in humans
  7. International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: Protein and Exercise
  8. A critical examination of dietary protein requirements, benefits, and excesses in Athletes
  9. Contemporary Issues in Protein Requirements and Consumption for Resistance Trained Athletes
  10. Beyond muscle hypertrophy: Why dietary protein is important for endurance athletes
  11. Protein Requirements Are Elevated in Endurance Athletes after Exercise as Determined by the Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Method.
  12. Protein Considerations for Optimising Skeletal Muscle Mass in Healthy Young and Older Adults
  13. Cumulative Muscle Protein Synthesis and Protein Intake Requirements – Annual Review of Nutrition, 36(1):17
  14. Protein intake for athletes and active adults: Current concepts and controversies
  15. Protein requirements for endurance athletes.
  16. Dietary protein requirements and adaptive advantages in athletes.
  17. Protein Consumption and the Elderly: What Is the Optimal Level of Intake?
  18. Protein and overtraining: potential applications for free-living athletes.
  19. Dietary Protein to Maintain Muscle Mass in Aging: A Case for Per-meal Protein Recommendations
  20. Macronutrient intakes as determinants of dietary protein and amino acid adequacy.
  21. Indicator Amino Acid–Derived Estimate of Dietary Protein Requirement for Male Bodybuilders on a Nontraining Day Is Several-Fold Greater than the Current Recommended Dietary Allowance
  22. Protein and amino acid requirements of adults: current controversies.
  23. Supplementing an energy adequate, higher-protein diet with protein does not enhance fat-free mass restoration after short-term severe negative energy balance
  24. Summary Points and Consensus Recommendations From the International Protein Summit – Apr 07, 2017
  25. Protein Recommendations for Bodybuilders: In This Case, More May Indeed Be Better
  26. Protein Requirements and Recommendations for Older People: A Review

 

 

Health


  1. A High Protein Diet Has No Harmful Effects: A One-Year Crossover Study in Resistance-Trained Males
  2. Effects of protein-carbohydrate supplementation on immunity and resistance training outcomes: a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial.
  3. Dietary Protein and Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review
  4. Whey protein lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function and lipid biomarkers in adults with prehypertension and mild hypertension: res…
  5. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Plant Compared with Animal Protein Sources on Features of Metabolic Syndrome.
  6. Soy protein based supplementation supports metabolic effects of resistance training in previously untrained middle aged males.
  7. Attenuation of Resting but Not Load-Mediated Protein Synthesis in Prostate Cancer Patients on Androgen Deprivation.
  8. Relevance of protein fermentation to gut health.
  9. Effects of a high protein diet on body weight and comorbidities associated with obesity
  10. Dietary protein, aging and nutritional geometry
  11. The effects of a high protein diet on indices of health and body composition–a crossover trial in resistance-trained men

 

Hormones

  1. Clinical studies show no effects of soy protein or isoflavones on reproductive hormones in men: results of a meta-analysis.
  2. Effect of Soy Protein on Testosterone Levels
  3. Effect of Soy Protein on Testosterone Levels | Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
  4. Clinical studies show no effects of soy protein or isoflavones on reproductive hormones in men: results of a meta-analysis – Fertility and Sterility
  5. The effects of soy and whey protein supplementation on acute hormonal reponses to resistance exercise in men.

 

Kidney function

  1. Controversies surrounding high-protein diet intake: satiating effect and kidney and bone health.
  2. Diets higher in animal and plant protein are associated with lower adiposity and do not impair kidney function in US adults
  3. Do regular high protein diets have potential health risks on kidney function in athletes? – Abstract – Europe PMC
  4. Effect of low-carbohydrate high-protein diets on acid-base balance, stone-forming propensity, and calcium metabolism.

 

Bone health

  1. Adverse Effects Associated with Protein Intake above the Recommended Dietary Allowance for Adults
  2. Dietary protein and bone health: a systematic review and meta-analysis from the National Osteoporosis Foundation

 

Lifespan

  1. The impact of low-protein high-carbohydrate diets on aging and lifespan
  2. Longevity and skeletal muscle mass: the role of IGF signalling, the sirtuins, dietary restriction and protein intake

 

Diabetes

  1. Remission of pre-diabetes to normal glucose tolerance in obese adults with high protein versus high carbohydrate diet: randomized control trial — Stentz et al.

 

BCAAs


  1. The Neurotransmitter Depleting Effects of Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) and Their Potential Ergolytic, Anxiogenic & Depressive Downstream Effects – SuppVersity: Nutrition and Exercise Science for Everyone
  2. The data do not seem to support a benefit to BCAA supplementation during periods of caloric restriction
  3. Effect of BCAA intake during endurance exercises on fatigue substances, muscle damage substances, and energy metabolism substances
  4. Branched-chain amino acids in metabolic signalling and insulin resistance
  5. Consuming a supplement containing branched-chain amino acids during a resistance-training program increases lean mass, muscle strength and fat loss
  6. Metabolism of branched-chain amino acids and ammonia during exercise: clues from McArdle’s disease
  7. Exercise-induced muscle damage is reduced in resistance-trained males by branched chain amino acids: A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study
  8. Branched-chain amino acids increase p70S6k phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle after resistance exercise | Endocrinology and Metabolism
  9. In a single-blind, matched group design: branched-chain amino acid supplementation and resistance training maintains lean body mass during a caloric restricted diet
  10. Combined effects of caloric restriction and branched-chain amino acid supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in elite wrestlers
  11. Update on nutritional supplementation with branched-chain amino acids
  12. Intake of branched-chain or essential amino acids attenuates the elevation in muscle levels of PGC-1α4 mRNA caused by resistance exercise | Endocrinology and Metabolism
  13. Post-exercise branched chain amino acid supplementation does not affect recovery markers following three consecutive high intensity resistance training bouts compared to carbohydrate supplementation | Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition | Full Text
  14. Ten weeks of branched-chain amino acid supplementation improves select performance and immunological variables in trained cyclists
  15. The effects of acute branched-chain amino acid supplementation on recovery from a single bout of hypertrophy exercise in resistance-trained athletes – Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
  16. Activation of mTORC1 by leucine is potentiated by branched chain amino acids and even more so by essential amino acids following resistance exercise

 

Digestibility and bioavailability


  1. Impact of antinutritional factors in food proteins on the digestibility of protein and the bioavailability of amino acids and on protein quality.
  2. Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Scores and Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Scores Differentially Describe Protein Quality in Growing Male Rats
  3. Effects of antinutritional factors on protein digestibility and amino acid availability in foods.

 

Protein quality and biological value


  1. The Biological Value of Protein
  2. A “muscle-centric” view of dietary protein quality
  3. Maximizing muscle protein anabolism: The role of protein quality
  4. Protein – Which is Best?
  5. The impact of protein quality on the promotion of resistance exercise-induced changes in muscle mass | Nutrition & Metabolism | Full Text
  6. The Skeletal Muscle Anabolic Response to Plant- versus Animal-Based Protein Consumption.
  7. Coingestion of whey protein and casein in a mixed meal: demonstration of a more sustained anabolic effect of casein.
  8. Compared with casein or total milk protein, digestion of milk soluble proteins is too rapid to sustain the anabolic postprandial amino acid requirement
  9. Native whey induces higher and faster leucinemia than other whey protein supplements and milk: a randomized controlled trial | BMC Nutrition | Full Text
  10. Coingestion of whey protein and casein in a mixed meal: demonstration of a more sustained anabolic effect of casein
  11. Peanut as a source of protein for human foods.
  12. Chemical composition and protein properties of peanuts.

Leucine

  1. Free leucine supplementation during an 8-week resistance training program does not increase muscle mass and strength in untrained young adult subje…
  2. Long-term effects of leucine supplementation on body composition
  3. Activation of mTORC1 by leucine is potentiated by branched chain amino acids and even more so by essential amino acids following resistance exercise
  4. Enriching a protein drink with leucine augments muscle protein synthesis after resistance exercise in young and older men
  5. l-Leucine Increases Skeletal Muscle IGF-1 but Does Not Differentially Increase Akt/mTORC1 Signaling and Serum IGF-1 Compared to Ursolic Acid in Res…
  6. Leucine supplementation enhances integrative myofibrillar protein synthesis in free-living older men consuming lower- and higher-protein diets: a parallel-group crossover study
  7. Co-ingestion of carbohydrate with leucine-enriched essential amino acids does not augment acute postexercise muscle protein synthesis in a strenuous exercise-induced hypoinsulinemic state
  8. Leucine supplementation of a low-protein mixed macronutrient beverage enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men: a double-blind, randomi…
  9. Leucine: a nutrient ‘trigger’ for muscle anabolism, but what more?
  10. Leucine supplementation enhances integrative myofibrillar protein synthesis in free-living older men consuming lower- and higher-protein diets: a parallel-group crossover study
  11. Supplementation of a suboptimal protein dose with leucine or essential amino acids: effects on myofibrillar protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in men
  12. Native whey induces higher and faster leucinemia than other whey protein supplements and milk: a randomized controlled trial | BMC Nutrition | Full Text
  13. Postexercise Dietary Protein Ingestion Increases Whole-Body Leucine Balance in a Dose-Dependent Manner in Healthy Children.
  14. Leucine-protein supplemented recovery feeding enhances subsequent cycling performance in well-trained men

 

MPS associations with hypertrophy


  1. Resistance training-induced changes in integrated myofibrillar protein synthesis are related to hypertrophy only after attenuation of muscle damage – Damas – The Journal of Physiology – Wiley Online Library
  2. Post-absorptive muscle protein turnover affects resistance training hypertrophy.
  3. Resistance training-induced changes in integrated myofibrillar protein synthesis are related to hypertrophy only after attenuation of muscle damage
  4. Acute Post-Exercise Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis Is Not Correlated with Resistance Training-Induced Muscle Hypertrophy in Young Men
  5. Are acute increases in muscle protein synthesis associated with increased muscle hypertrophy?
  6. What is the relationship between the acute muscle protein synthesis response and changes in muscle mass?
  7. Commentaries on Viewpoint: What is the relationship between acute measure of muscle protein synthesis and changes in muscle mass?
  8. Acute response of net muscle protein balance reflects 24-h balance after exercise and amino acid ingestion | Endocrinology and Metabolism

 

Insulin


  1. Mechanism of insulin’s anabolic effect on muscle: Measurements of muscle protein synthesis and breakdown using aminoacyl-tRNA and other surrogate measures
  2. Effect of protein ingestion on the glucose and insulin response to a standardized oral glucose load
  3. Effect on insulin on protein catabolism after injury in young animals
  4. Insulin resistance is associated with skeletal muscle protein breakdown in non-diabetic chronic hemodialysis patients
  5. Insulin does not Stimulate Muscle Protein Synthesis during Increased Plasma Branched-chain Amino Acids Alone but Decreases Whole-body Proteolysis in Humans | Endocrinology and Metabolism
  6. Exogenous insulin does not increase muscle protein synthesis rate when administered systemically: a systematic review.

 

Muscle protein synthesis and breakdown


  1. Moderating the portion size of a protein-rich meal improves anabolic efficiency in young and elderly (Symons et al., 2009)
  2. A Review of Resistance Training-Induced Changes in Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis and Their Contribution to Hypertrophy
  3. Coingestion of carbohydrate with protein does not further augment postexercise muscle protein synthesis
  4. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men.
  5. Mitochondrial Protein Synthesis, Import, and Assembly
  6. Optimal protein intake to maximize muscle protein synthesis Examinations of optimal meal protein intake and frequency for athletes
  7. Habituation to low or high protein intake does not modulate basal or postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates: a randomized trial
  8. Leucine supplementation of a low-protein mixed macronutrient beverage enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men: a double-blind, randomi…
  9. Mechanisms of protein balance in skeletal muscle.
  10. Human skeletal muscle disuse atrophy: effects on muscle protein synthesis, breakdown and insulin resistance- a qualitative review
  11. Androgen-mediated regulation of skeletal muscle protein balance.
  12. Human Skeletal Muscle Protein Metabolism Responses to Amino Acid Nutrition

 

Aging and anabolic resistance

  1. Protein Ingestion to Stimulate Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis Requires Greater Relative Protein Intakes in Healthy Older Versus Younger Men
  2. Effect of age on basal muscle protein synthesis and mTORC1 signaling in a large cohort of young and older men and women
  3. Does the muscle protein synthetic response to exercise and amino acid-based nutrition diminish with advancing age? A systematic review | Endocrinology and Metabolism
  4. Anabolic resistance of muscle protein synthesis with aging.
  5. Ingestion of Wheat Protein Increases In Vivo Muscle Protein Synthesis Rates in Healthy Older Men in a Randomized Trial
  6. Leucine supplementation enhances integrative myofibrillar protein synthesis in free-living older men consuming lower- and higher-protein diets: a parallel-group crossover study
  7. Aging Reduces the Activation of the mTORC1 Pathway after Resistance Exercise and Protein Intake in Human Skeletal Muscle: Potential Role of REDD1 and Impaired Anabolic Sensitivity
  8. Dietary proteins and amino acids in the control of the muscle mass during immobilization and aging: role of the MPS response
  9. Exercise and Protein Intake: A Synergistic Approach against Sarcopenia
  10. Moderating the portion size of a protein-rich meal improves anabolic efficiency in young and elderly
  11. Aging Is Accompanied by a Blunted Muscle Protein Synthetic Response to Protein Ingestion
  12. Age-related differences in the dose–response relationship of muscle protein synthesis to resistance exercise in young and old men
  13. Light-load resistance exercise increases muscle protein synthesis and hypertrophy signaling in elderly men
  14. Live strong and prosper: the importance of skeletal muscle strength for healthy ageing

 

“Anabolic window” / amino acid sensitivity

  1. Enhanced amino acid sensitivity of myofibrillar protein synthesis persists for up to 24 h after resistance exercise in young men
  2. Anabolic sensitivity of postprandial muscle protein synthesis to the ingestion of a protein-dense food is reduced in overweight and obese young adults

 

Exercise and nutrition

  1. Differential stimulation of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein synthesis with protein ingestion at rest and after resistance exercise.
  2. Nutritional Interventions to Promote Post-Exercise Muscle Protein Synthesis
  3. Muscle protein synthesis in response to nutrition and exercise
  4. Hypoenergetic diet-induced reductions in myofibrillar protein synthesis are restored with resistance training and balanced daily protein ingestion in older men
  5. Mixed muscle protein synthesis and breakdown after resistive exercise in humans
  6. Muscle protein synthesis in response to nutrition and exercise.
  7. Muscle time under tension during resistance exercise stimulates differential muscle protein sub-fractional synthetic responses in men
  8. Myofibrillar muscle protein synthesis rates subsequent to a meal in response to increasing doses of whey protein at rest and after resistance exercise
  9. Protein Ingestion Increases Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis after Concurrent Exercise
  10. Resistance exercise and nutrition Protein and/or amino acid ingestion to promote muscle protein synthesis following exercise
  11. The muscle protein synthetic response to food ingestion
  12. Resistance exercise-induced increases in putative anabolic hormones do not enhance muscle protein synthesis or intracellular signalling in young men.
  13. Skeletal Muscle Protein Metabolism and Resistance Exercise
  14. Role of Ingested Amino Acids and Protein in the Promotion of Resistance Exercise–Induced Muscle Protein Anabolism
  15. Short inter-set rest blunts resistance exercise-induced increases in myofibrillar protein synthesis and intracellular signaling in young males – McKendry – 2016 – Experimental Physiology – Wiley Online Library
  16. Exercise type and volume alter signaling pathways regulating skeletal muscle glucose uptake and protein synthesis
  17. Ingested protein dose response of muscle and albumin protein synthesis after resistance exercise in young men
  18. Insulin action on muscle protein kinetics and amino acid transport during recovery after resistance exercise.
  19. Low-Load High Volume Resistance Exercise Stimulates Muscle Protein Synthesis More Than High-Load Low Volume Resistance Exercise in Young Men
  20. Modulation of Autophagy Signaling with Resistance Exercise and Protein Ingestion Following Short-Term Energy Deficit
  21. Reduced resting skeletal muscle protein synthesis is rescued by resistance exercise and protein ingestion following short-term energy deficit
  22. Role of Ingested Amino Acids and Protein in the Promotion of Resistance Exercise-Induced Muscle Protein Anabolism.
  23. Protein supplementation does not alter intramuscular anabolic signaling or endocrine response after resistance exercise in trained men.
  24. Resistance exercise increases AMPK activity and reduces 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle – Dreyer – 2006 – The Journal of Physiology – Wiley Online Library
  25. Resistance training with excessive training load and insufficient recovery alters skeletal muscle mass-related protein expression.
  26. Skeletal muscle and resistance exercise training; the role of protein synthesis in recovery and remodelling (mcglory, phillips)
  27. Exercising before protein intake allows for greater use of dietary protein-derived amino acids for de novo muscle protein synthesis in both young and elderly men
  28. Free amino acid pool and muscle protein balance after resistance exercise.
  29. Supplementation of a suboptimal protein dose with leucine or essential amino acids: effects on myofibrillar protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in men
  30. Effect of combined aerobic and strength exercises on the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and protein synthesis and degradation in human skeletal muscle
  31. Coordinated collagen and muscle protein synthesis in human patella tendon and quadriceps muscle after exercise.
  32. Muscle amino acid metabolism at rest and during exercise: role in human physiology and metabolism
  33. Deamination of amino acids as a source for ammonia production in human skeletal muscle during prolonged exercise.
  34. Effect of endurance training on ammonia and amino acid metabolism in humans

 

Protein turnover after exercise

  1. Resistance exercise and the mechanisms of muscle mass regulation in humans: acute effects on muscle protein turnover and the gaps in our understanding of chronic resistance exercise training adaptation
  2. Effects of skeletal muscle energy availability on protein turnover responses to exercise
  3. Effect of glycogen availability on human skeletal muscle protein turnover during exercise and recovery
  4. Resistance training reduces muscle protein turnover.

 

Muscle full effect (maximal stimulation of MPS)

  1. Latency and duration of stimulation of human muscle protein synthesis during continuous infusion of amino acids
  2. Is there a maximal anabolic response to protein intake with a meal?
  3. The anabolic response to a meal containing different amounts of protein is not limited by the maximal stimulation of protein synthesis in healthy young adults | Endocrinology and Metabolism
  4. The response of muscle protein synthesis following whole-body resistance exercise is greater following 40 g than 20 g of ingested whey protein
  5. Ingested protein dose response of muscle and albumin protein synthesis after resistance exercise in young men
  6. Differential stimulation of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein synthesis with protein ingestion at rest and after resistance exercise.
  7. Exercising before protein intake allows for greater use of dietary protein-derived amino acids for de novo muscle protein synthesis in both young and elderly men

 

Drug and supplement interactions

  1. Effect of ibuprofen and acetaminophen on postexercise muscle protein synthesis
  2. Fish oil supplementation suppresses resistance exercise and feeding‐induced increases in anabolic signaling without affecting myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men
  3. Vitamin C and E supplementation alters protein signalling after a strength training session, but not muscle growth during 10 weeks of training: Strength training and vitamin C and E supplementation
  4. Net protein synthesis and amino acid uptake with testosterone injection
  5. Influence of omega-3 fatty acids on skeletal muscle protein metabolism and mitochondrial bioenergetics in older adults.

 

Recovery


  1. Effect of protein-rich feeding on recovery after intense exercise
  2. Effect of a proprietary protein supplement on recovery indices following resistance exercise in strength/power athletes
  3. Leucine-protein supplemented recovery feeding enhances subsequent cycling performance in well-trained men
  4. Nutrition to Support Recovery from Endurance Exercise: Optimal Carbohydrate and Protein Replacement
  5. The Effect of Post-Exercise Milk Protein Intake on Rehydration of Children
  6. Getting the most out of your exercise: The importance of dietary protein in your recovery nutrition
  7. Amino Acids and Implications for Athletes (protein synthesis and recovery)
  8. Application of protein or protein Hydrolysates to improve postexercise recovery
  9. Chocolate milk and endurance exercise recovery: protein balance, glycogen, and performance.
  10. Protein for exercise and recovery.

 

Muscle damage and soreness


  1. Effect of milk-based carbohydrate-protein supplement timing on the attenuation of exercise induced muscle damage
  2. Effects of protein supplements on muscle damage, soreness and recovery of muscle function and physical performance: a systematic review.

 

Alcohol


  1. Dysregulation of skeletal muscle protein metabolism by alcohol (Steiner and Lang, 2015)
  2. Moderate alcohol consumption does not impair overload‐induced muscle hypertrophy and protein synthesis
  3. Alcohol Ingestion Impairs Maximal Post-Exercise Rates of Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis following a Single Bout of Concurrent Training

 

Protein timing


  1. Timing and distribution of protein ingestion during prolonged recovery from resistance exercise alters myofibrillar protein synthesis
  2. Effects of a pre-and post-workout protein-carbohydrate supplement in trained crossfit individuals
  3. Enriching a protein drink with leucine augments muscle protein synthesis after resistance exercise in young and older men
  4. Daytime pattern of post-exercise protein intake affects whole-body protein turnover in resistance-trained males
  5. Post-Exercise Dietary Protein Strategies to Maximize Skeletal Muscle Repair and Remodeling in Masters Endurance Athletes: A Review
  6. Post-exercise protein ingestion increases whole body net protein balance in healthy children
  7. Postexercise protein intake enhances whole-body and leg protein accretion in humans.
  8. The influence of post-exercise macronutrient intake on energy balance and protein metabolism in active females participating in endurance training.
  9. Effect of timing of protein and carbohydrate intake after resistance exercise on nitrogen balance in trained and untrained young men –
  10. Rapid aminoacidemia enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis and anabolic intramuscular signaling responses after resistance exercise.
  11. Timing Of Post-exercise Protein Ingestion Alters Anabolic Signaling During Prolonged Recovery
  12. Postexercise Dietary Protein Ingestion Increases Whole-Body Leucine Balance in a Dose-Dependent Manner in Healthy Children.
  13. Protein timing during the day and its relevance for muscle strength and lean mass

 

Strength and hypertrophy

  1. The effect of protein timing on muscle strength and hypertrophy: A meta-analysis
  2. Timing of postexercise protein intake is important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humans
  3. Protein timing and its effects on muscular hypertrophy and strength in individuals engaged in weight-training
  4. The Timing of Postexercise Protein Ingestion Is/Is Not Important
  5. Pre- versus post-exercise protein intake has similar effects on muscular adaptations. (schoenfeld nutrient timing anabolic window (2017))
  6. Effects of Post-Exercise Protein Intake on Muscle Mass and Strength During Resistance Training: is There an Optimal Ratio Between Fast and Slow Pro…

 

Pre-sleep

  1. Physical Activity Performed in the Evening Increases the Overnight Muscle Protein Synthetic Response to Presleep Protein Ingestion in Older Men
  2. Protein Ingestion before Sleep Increases Muscle Mass and Strength Gains during Prolonged Resistance-Type Exercise Training in Healthy Young Men
  3. Protein ingestion before sleep improves postexercise overnight recovery. – Abstract – Europe PMC
  4. Pre-sleep protein ingestion does not compromise the muscle protein synthetic response to protein ingested the following morning | Endocrinology and Metabolism
  5. Pre-Sleep Protein Ingestion to Improve the Skeletal Muscle Adaptive Response to Exercise Training

 

Feeding pattern and protein distribution


  1. Protein feeding pattern does not affect protein retention in young women.
  2. Dietary Protein Intake and Distribution Patterns of Well-Trained Dutch Athletes.
  3. Dietary Protein Distribution Positively Influences 24-h Muscle Protein Synthesis in Healthy Adults
  4. Increasing Protein Distribution Has No Effect on Changes in Lean Mass during a Rugby Preseason | International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
  5. Protein intake distribution pattern does not affect anabolic response, lean body mass, muscle strength or function over 8 weeks in older adults: A randomized-controlled trial

 

Strength and performance


  1. Muscle strength gains during resistance exercise training are attenuated with soy compared with dairy or usual protein intake in older adults: A ra…
  2. Protein-Pacing and Multi-Component Exercise Training Improves Physical Performance Outcomes in Exercise-Trained Women: The PRISE 3 Study
  3. Protein Supplementation Does Not Significantly Augment the Effects of Resistance Exercise Training in Older Adults: A Systematic Review.
  4. The Effects of Protein Supplements on Muscle Mass, Strength, and Aerobic and Anaerobic Power in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review

 

Body composition changes


  1. Rethinking the Value of Dietary Protein
  2. Dietary protein and exercise have additive effects on body composition during weight loss in adult women.
  3. Acute and Long-Term Impact of High-Protein Diets on Endocrine and Metabolic Function, Body Composition, and Exercise-Induced Adaptations.
  4. Normal vs. high-protein weight loss diets in men: effects on body composition and indices of metabolic syndrome.
  5. Normal Protein Intake Is Required for Body Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance, and Elevated Protein Intake for Additional Preservation of Resting Energy Expenditure and Fat Free Mass

 

Hypertrophy

  1. Influence of Amino Acids, Dietary Protein, and Physical Activity on Muscle Mass Development in Humans
  2. Daily Overfeeding from Protein and/or Carbohydrate Supplementation for Eight Weeks in Conjunction with Resistance Training Does not Improve Body Composition and Muscle Strength or Increase Markers Indicative of Muscle Protein Synthesis and Myogenesis in Resistance-Trained Males
  3. The effects of whey protein with or without carbohydrates on resistance training adaptations
  4. Heavy Resistance Training and Peri-Exercise Ingestion of a Multi-Ingredient Ergogenic Nutritional Supplement in Males: Effects on Body Composition, Muscle Performance and Markers of Muscle Protein Synthesis
  5. Per meal dose and frequency of protein consumption is associated with lean mass and muscle performance
  6. Dietary protein for muscle hypertrophy.
  7. Effects Of Resistance Training Volume And Whey Protein Supplementation On Lower-Body Strength And Muscle Cross-Sectional Area
  8. Effect of Dietary Protein Content on Weight Gain, Energy Expenditure, and Body Composition During Overeating – A Randomized Controlled Trial
  9. Dietary protein to support anabolism with resistance exercise in young men.
  10. Dietary protein to maximize resistance training: a review and examination of protein spread and change theories.
  11. A review of resistance training-induced changes in skeletal muscle protein synthesis and their contribution to hypertrophy.
  12. Protein Supplementation Does Not Further Increase Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Fiber Hypertrophy after Eight Weeks of Resistance Training in Novice Subjects, but Partially Counteracts the Fast-to-Slow Muscle Fiber Transition
  13. Effect of Protein Intake on Strength, Body Composition and Endocrine Changes in Strength/Power Athletes
  14. (Trained)Increasing Protein Distribution Has No Effect on Changes in Lean Mass During a Rugby Preseason.
  15. Protein Supplementation Has Minimal Effects on Muscle Adaptations during Resistance Exercise Training in Young Men: A Double-Blind Randomized Clini…
  16. Acute and long-term effects of resistance exercise with or without protein ingestion on muscle hypertrophy and gene expression.
  17. The effects of consuming a high protein diet (4.4 g/kg/d) on body composition in resistance-trained individuals
  18. Higher compared with lower dietary protein during an energy deficit combined with intense exercise promotes greater lean mass gain and fat mass loss: a randomized trial
  19. Protein supplementation augments the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to resistance-type exercise training: a meta-analysis.
  20. Pea proteins oral supplementation promotes muscle thickness gains during resistance training: a double-blind, randomized, Placebo-controlled clinical trial vs. Whey protein
  21. The Effects of Protein Supplements on Muscle Mass, Strength, and Aerobic and Anaerobic Power in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review
  22. Intake of a protein-enriched milk and effects on muscle mass and strength. A 12-week randomized placebo controlled trial among community-dwelling older adults
  23. A randomized trial of high-dairy-protein, variable-carbohydrate diets and exercise on body composition in adults with obesity.
  24. Effects of resistance training and protein plus amino acid supplementation on muscle anabolism, mass, and strength
  25. Supplemental Protein in Support of Muscle Mass and Health: Advantage Whey – Devries – 2015
  26. Effect of protein/essential amino acids and resistance training on skeletal muscle hypertrophy: A case for whey protein
  27. Whey protein supplementation during resistance training augments lean body mass.
  28. Effects of Hydrolyzed Whey versus Other Whey Protein Supplements on the Physiological Response to 8 Weeks of Resistance Exercise in College-Aged Males: Journal of the American College of Nutrition: Vol 36, No 1
  29. Protein Supplementation Does Not Affect Myogenic Adaptations to Resistance Training
  30. (Untrained)Resistance training and dietary protein: effects on glucose tolerance and contents of skeletal muscle insulin signaling proteins in older persons.
  31. The Effects of Beef, Chicken, or Whey Protein Post-Workout on Body Composition and Muscle Performance
  32. (Trained)Effect of Whey Protein in Conjunction With a Caloric-Restricted Diet and Resistance Training.
  33. (Trained)A high protein diet (3.4 g/kg/d) combined with a heavy resistance training program improves body composition in healthy trained men and women – a follow-up investigation | Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition | Full Text
  34. A Brief Review of Critical Processes in Exercise-Induced Muscular Hypertrophy

 

Deficit gaining, energy intake (protective effects on LBM, satiety, fat loss)

  1. A systematic review of dietary protein during caloric restriction in resistance trained lean athletes: a case for higher intakes.
  2. Higher compared with lower dietary protein during an energy deficit combined with intense exercise promotes greater lean mass gain and fat mass loss: A randomized trial
  3. Role of protein and amino acids in promoting lean mass accretion with resistance exercise and attenuating lean mass loss during energy deficit in humans
  4. Whey Protein Supplementation Preserves Postprandial Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis during Short-Term Energy Restriction in Overweight and Obese Adults
  5. The role of protein in weight loss and maintenance
  6. Considerations for protein intake in managing weight loss in athletes
  7. Effect of a hypocaloric diet, increased protein intake and resistance training on lean mass gains and fat mass loss in overweight police officers.
  8. Proteins and satiety: implications for weight management.
  9. Protein Intake Is Inversely Associated with Abdominal Obesity in a Multi-Ethnic Population
  10. Skeletal Muscle Responses to Negative Energy Balance: Effects of Dietary Protein
  11. Higher compared with lower dietary protein during an energy deficit combined with intense exercise promotes greater lean mass gain and fat mass loss: a randomized trial
  12. Effect of dairy proteins on appetite, energy expenditure, body weight, and composition: a review of the evidence from controlled clinical trials.
  13. (Trained)Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes.
  14. A Brief Review of Higher Dietary Protein Diets in Weight Loss: A Focus on Athletes
  15. Protein leverage and energy intake
  16. Increased Energy Intake Driven by Protein Leverage in Lean, Healthy Individuals: A Randomised Trial
  17. Whey protein consumption after resistance exercise reduces energy intake at a post-exercise meal | SpringerLink
  18. The Effects of Increased Protein Intake on Fullness: A Meta-Analysis and Its Limitations.
  19. Protein leverage and energy intake – Gosby – 2013 – Obesity Reviews – Wiley Online Library
  20. Protein-induced satiety: effects and mechanisms of different proteins.
  21. The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis, satiety and weight loss: a critical review.
  22. Dietary protein, weight loss, and weight maintenance.
  23. The role of protein in weight loss and maintenance
  24. Long term weight maintenance after advice to consume low carbohydrate, higher protein diets – A systematic review and meta analysis
  25. (Untrained)Effect of a hypocaloric diet, increased protein intake and resistance training on lean mass gains and fat mass loss in overweight police officers.
  26. Effect of fat-reduced diets on 24-h energy expenditure: comparisons between animal protein, vegetable protein, and carbohydrate
  27. Differences in fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism between lean and obese subjects undergoing total starvation.
  28. (untrained)Effect of a high protein diet and/or resistance exercise on the preservation of fat free mass during weight loss in overweight and obese older adul…
  29. Comparison of Weight-Loss Diets with Different Compositions of Fat, Protein, and Carbohydrates
  30. Effects of high-protein diets on fat-free mass and muscle protein synthesis following weight loss: a randomized controlled trial
  31. Effects of dietary protein content on IGF-I, testosterone, and body composition during 8 days of severe energy deficit and arduous physical activity.
  32. Protein-Pacing Caloric-Restriction Enhances Body Composition Similarly in Obese Men and Women during Weight Loss and Sustains Efficacy during Long-Term Weight Maintenance
  33. The acute effects of four protein meals on insulin, glucose, appetite and energy intake in lean men.

 

Co-ingestion with other nutrients


  1. Co-ingesting milk fat with micellar casein does not affect postprandial protein handling in healthy older men.
  2. Carbohydrate does not augment exercise-induced protein accretion versus protein alone.
  3. Is carbohydrate needed to further stimulate muscle protein synthesis/hypertrophy following resistance exercise? | Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition | Full Text
  4. Does a carbohydrate-protein beverage (CHO-P) improve endurance performance compared with a commercial sports beverage? – ResearchGate
  5. Co-ingestion of carbohydrate and whey protein isolates enhance PGC-1α mRNA expression: A randomised, single blind, cross over study
  6. Effect of coingestion of fat and protein with carbohydrate feedings on muscle glycogen storage.
  7. Co-ingestion of carbohydrate with leucine-enriched essential amino acids does not augment acute postexercise muscle protein synthesis in a strenuous exercise-induced hypoinsulinemic state
  8. Fiber Type-Specific Satellite Cell Content in Cyclists Following Heavy Training with Carbohydrate and Carbohydrate-Protein Supplementation

 

mTOR and Akt


  1. The role of mTORC1 in regulating protein synthesis and skeletal muscle mass in response to various mechanical stimuli.
  2. Ingestion of 10 grams of whey protein prior to a single bout of resistance exercise does not augment Akt/mTOR pathway signaling compared to carbohydrate
  3. Whey protein intake after resistance exercise activates mTOR signaling in a dose-dependent manner in human skeletal muscle.

 

Sex differences


  1. Influence of Sex and Estrogen on Musculotendinous Protein Turnover at Rest and After Exercise
  2. Sexually dimorphic effect of aging on skeletal muscle protein synthesis.
  3. Greater muscle protein synthesis and mitochondrial biogenesis in males compared with females during sprint interval training

 

Misc


  1. Selective Modulation of MicroRNA Expression with Protein Ingestion Following Concurrent Resistance and Endurance Exercise in Human Skeletal Muscle
  2. Impact of Caffeine and Protein on Postexercise Muscle Glycogen Synthesis
  3. Comparison of Post-Exercise Nutrition Knowledge and Post-Exercise Carbohydrate and Protein Intake Between Australian Masters and Younger Triathletes
  4. No evidence for metabolic adaptation in thermic effect of food by dietary protein.
  5. Measurement of human mixed muscle protein fractional synthesis rate depends on the choice of amino acid tracer.
  6. Benefit beliefs about protein supplements: A comparative study of users and non-users.
  7. Dietary Protein Modifies the Effect of the MC4R Genotype on 2-Year Changes in Appetite and Food Craving: The POUNDS Lost Trial.
  8. Androgen-mediated regulation of skeletal muscle protein balance.
  9. Enhanced Protein Translation Underlies Improved Metabolic and Physical Adaptations to Different Exercise Training Modes in Young and Old Humans: Cell Metabolism
  10. Recent advances for measurement of protein synthesis rates, use of the ‘Virtual Biopsy’ approach, and measurement of muscle mass.
  11. Effect of protein overfeeding on energy expenditure measured in a metabolic chamber
  12. Short communication: Muscle protein synthetic response to microparticulated whey protein in middle-aged men
  13. Optimizing intramuscular adaptations to aerobic exercise: effects of carbohydrate restriction and protein supplementation on mitochondrial biogenesis.
  14. Barriers to and Facilitators of the Consumption of Animal-Based Protein-Rich Foods in Older Adults
  15. Amino Acid Sensing in Skeletal Muscle