Energy expenditure and energy balance: collection of 300+ studies

Authors
Adam Tzur (FBSCI-FIT),

Acknowledgements
Lyle McDonald (FBBodyrecomposition.com)

Published: 02.11.2017 (updated: 02.11.2017)


Introduction

This is a collection of energy expenditure and energy balance studies. Use the table of contents above this headline to navigate and find the studies you want to read. The studies are all categorized by topic and sub-topic. Contact me at adam@sci-fit.net if you want to contribute studies or reviews to this collection.

Plain language explanations of central terms

All the relevant terms and definitions are organized below. These terms are central to understanding energy expenditure. Give it a quick read before diving into the research. Click the blue buttons and red footnotes to read relevant quotes from studies.

Thermogenesis

Thermogenesis is when the body produces heat (energy). As explained below, there are several ways this can happen.

Energy Expenditure (EE) and Energy Balance (EB)

The human body is always expending energy. Whether you are sitting, moving, eating, shivering, etc. The more active you are, the more energy you expend (energy out). The more energy you expend, the more food you need to eat to maintain body weight (energy in). You are in energy balance when you are eating the same amount of energy that you are expending. ~10% of the energy we eat is lost in feces, urine, or via the skin.

“In humans, about 90% of energy ingested is metabolizable energy, with the rest being lost in the feces, urine, or leaving the body via the skin” - Lam and Ravussin, 2016

The figure below shows how different amounts of lean body mass correlate with energy expenditure (more mass = more energy expended per 24h).

Figure by Casperson et al., 2017 (edited for clarity)

Total Daily Energy Expenditure (TDEE)

Your total daily energy expenditure is how much energy you expend every day. It is typically measured in kcal (kilocalories aka calories). According to the dietary guidelines of Health.gov, the average sedentary american requires 2,400 kcal (men) or 2,000 kcal (women) to maintain body weight. TDEE consists of resting metabolic rate, the thermic effect of food, and activity expenditure. These terms are explained further down.

TDEE calculators (these may not necessarily be accurate):

“Total daily energy expenditure is comprised of three components: resting (or basal) metabolic rate (RMR), the thermic effect of food (TEF; also known as diet-induced thermogenesis), and activity energy expenditure.“ - Lam and Ravussin, 2016

“The major energy components of TDEE are resting metabolic rate (RMR), diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), and activity thermogenesis.”  - Donahoo et al., 2004

Total energy expenditure (TEE) is composed of the energy costs of the processes essential for life (basal metabolic rate (BMR), 60–80% of TEE), of the energy expended in order to digest, absorb, and convert food (diet-induced thermogenesis, ~10%), and the energy expended during physical activities (activity energy expenditure, ~15–30%) - Heydenreich et al., 2017

Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) aka Resting Energy Expenditure (REE)

Resting metabolic rate refers to how much energy your body expends to maintain basic physiological functions. As the name implies, it is measured at rest.

“RMR refers to the energy required to sustain the biochemical systems of the body at complete rest and accounts for ∼70% of TDEE in sedentary individuals [41].”  - Lam and Ravussin, 2016

“RMR is the largest component of TDEE (60–75%), and represents the energy required to maintain essential vital functioning. Three-quarters of the variability in RMR is predicted by lean body mass [5].” - Donahoo et al., 2004

“Major factors contributing to individual variation in REE include age, gender, body size, body composition, ethnicity, physical fitness level, hormonal status, and a range of genetic and environmental influences (21–25).” - Hills et al., 2014

Activity Expenditure (AE) aka Activity Thermogenesis (AT)

Activity expenditure is the energy expended during movement during normal day-to-day activities and exercise. We divide activity expenditure into exercise energy expenditure (EAT), and non-exercise energy expenditure (NEAT).

“Energy cost of physical activity is the most variable component of TDEE, which accounts for energy consumed in muscular work during spontaneous and voluntary exercise. It has been estimated that activity energy expenditure ranges from ∼15% in very sedentary individuals to up to 50% in highly active individuals [47].”  - Lam and Ravussin, 2016

Physical activity is the third main determinant of TEE. It is defined as the additional energy expenditure above REE and TEF, which is required for performing bodily activity. It can be categorized into exercise related activity thermogenesis (EAT) and nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). Both vary widely within and between individuals. For the majority of subjects in industrialized countries exercise is believed to be negligible (13,15). - Loeffelholz, 2014

Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (EAT) aka Exercise Energy Expenditure (ExEE)

This is the energy you expend during exercise.

“in untrained subjects, an exercise-induced increase in activity energy expenditure is compensated by a training-induced increase in exercise efficiency.” - Westerterp, 2017

Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT)

This is the energy you use during activity and movement outside of exercise.

Diet-Induced Thermogenesis (DIT) aka Thermic Effect of Food (TEF)

You expend energy digesting, absorbing, and storing foods. TEF/DIT accounts for about 10% of TDEE. Protein leads to the greatest diet-induced energy expenditure. Combined with its positive effects on satiety and lean body mass, protein is an important macronutrient during weight loss.

“DIT is the increase in energy expenditure associated with the digestion, absorption, and storage of food and accounts for approximately 10– 15% of TDEE [6].” - Donahoo et al., 2004

“TEF refers to the energy expenditure that relates to food consumption, i.e., energy required to digest, absorb, assimilate, and store nutrients, and thus is dependent on the amount and the type of nutrients consumed. TEF has been reported as 5–10%, 0–3% and 20–30% of the energy content of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins respectively [50] and in the case of energy balance on a Western diet accounts for ∼10% of TDEE [51].”  - Lam and Ravussin, 2016

“In conclusion, the main determinants of diet-induced thermogenesis are the energy content and the protein- and alcohol fraction of the diet. Protein plays a key role in body weight regulation through satiety related to diet-induced thermogenesis.” - Westerterp, 2004

Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC)

After exercise, your body continues to expend energy beyond what it normally would if you were sedentary. This has also been called the Afterburn Effect. Sprints and strength training seem to increase EPOC more than low intensity steady state training (i.e. jogging).

“In the recovery period after exercise there is an increase in oxygen uptake termed the 'excess post-exercise oxygen consumption' (EPOC), consisting of a rapid and a prolonged component.” - Børsheim and Bahr, 2003

“the amount of exercising skeletal mass is an additional variable to consider when relating exercise to EPOC.” - Elliot et al, 1992

Adaptive Thermogenesis (AT)

When we lose weight, the body might reduce its energy expenditure to prevent further weight loss. It will also try to regain lost weight.

“The adaptive component of thermogenesis that has been documented under conditions of negative energy balance is under the influence of hormones and sympathetic nervous system activity that have been shown to explain variations in EE beyond what could be explained by changes in body weight and composition.9, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44 Indeed, leptin,11, 39, 45 insulin,46, 47, 48 thyroid hormones 9, 38, 41, 43, 45 as well as sympathetic activity37, 41, 42, 45 have been shown in several studies to be associated with a greater than predicted variation in EE. Moreover, fat depletion per se has also been considered as a determinant factor for adaptive thermogenesis.7, 49” - Major et al., 2007

“The over 80% recidivism rate to pre-weight loss levels of body fatness after otherwise successful weight loss is due to the coordinate actions of metabolic, behavioral, neuroendocrine, and autonomic responses designed to maintain body energy stores (fat) at a CNS- defined “ideal”. This “adaptive thermogenesis” creates the ideal situation for weight regain and is operant in both lean and obese individuals attempting to sustain reduced body weights. Much of this opposition to sustained weight loss is mediated by the adipocyte-derived hormone “leptin””. - Rosenbaum and Leibel, 2010

 

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Interesting papers

Click the footnotes to read quotes from the papers.

  1. Steady state models provide an invalid estimate of intermittent resistance-exercise energy costs (PDF Download Available)  1Resistance training energy costs as described here are not properly portrayed by steady state oxygen uptake models - indeed, such application lacks validity. We instead suggest that the energy costs of brief, intense, intermittent exercise should be quantified in the context of a capacity estimate, where a bout of exercise and/or amount of work (J) completed is associated with a specific energy cost (kJoules). For resistance exercise, we propose linear models that measure work and energy bouts as an alternative to the steady state rate model.”
  2. Re-interpreting anaerobic metabolism: an argument for the application of both anaerobic glycolysis and excess post-exercise oxygen comsumption (EPOC)  2Care must be taken when using O2 uptake alone to quantify energy expenditure because various high-intensity exercise models reveal that O2 uptake can lag behind estimated energy demands or exceed them. The independent bioenergetics behind anaerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration can acknowledge these discrepancies. Anaerobic glycolysis is an additive component to an exercise O2 uptake measurement. Moreover, it is the assumptions behind steady-state O2 uptake that do not permit proper interpretation of energy expenditure during EPOC; 1 l O2 not = 20.9 kJ. Using both the O2 deficit and a modified EPOC for interpretation, rather than one or the other, leads to a better method of quantifying energy expenditure for higher intensity exercise and recovery.”
  3. Licence to eat: Information on energy expended during exercise affects subsequent energy intake
  4. Long-term persistence of adaptive thermogenesis in subjects who have maintained a reduced body weight  3“Declines in energy expenditure favoring the regain of lost weight persist well beyond the period of dynamic weight loss.”
  5. Modeling the Total Energy Costs of Resistance Exercise: a Work in Progress  4“We present an aerobic and anaerobic, exercise and recovery energy cost model of intermittent energy costs utilizing task (work, Joules) as opposed to rate (per minute) measurements. Low to moderate intensity steady state exercise energy costs are typically portrayed as the volumetric rate at which oxygen is consumed (VO2 L min–1), where a proportionate upward climbing linear relationship is profiled with an increasing power output; add to this the concept of the anaerobic threshold and energy costs increase with more intense aerobic exercise in disproportion to VO2 L min–1 measurements. As a per task function, intermittent work and recovery bouts contain a combined estimate of total costs, that is as kJ or kcal (not kJ.min-1 or kcal.min-1)”
  6. Resistance to weight gain during overfeeding: a NEAT explanation  5Individuals in whom overeating effectively activates NEAT dissipate as much as 69% of the excess energy as heat. Those less able to activate NEAT store a higher proportion of the excess calories as fat. Other studies have shown that genotype is an important determinant of resistance to overfeeding-induced weight gain. Spontaneous weight gain is accompanied by rises in plasma norepinephrine, insulin, and leptin levels, suggesting that a change in autonomic nervous system activity or in pattern of hormonal secretion might play a role in the activation of overeating-induced NEAT”
  7. Resting metabolic rate varies by race and by sleep duration  6“Resting metabolic rate—the largest component of energy expenditure—decreased after sleep restriction (−2.6%, p=0.032) and returned to baseline levels after recovery sleep. No changes in resting metabolic rate were observed in control subjects. Relative to Caucasians (n=14), African Americans (n=22) exhibited comparable daily caloric intake but a lower resting metabolic rate (p=0.043) and higher respiratory quotient (p=0.013) regardless of sleep duration.”
  8. Short-term, mixed-diet overfeeding in man: no evidence for "luxuskonsumption7“This study shows that approximately one-quarter of the excess energy intake was dissipated through an increase in EE, with 75% being stored in the body.”
  9. Energy cost of isolated resistance exercises across low- to high-intensities (PDF Download Available)  8 “This study revealed that low-intensity resistance exercise provides energy cost comprised between 3 and 10 kcalmin⁻¹. Energy cost rose past 20 kcalmin⁻¹ at 80% 1-RM in leg exercise. In addition, at 80% 1-RM, it was found that upper body exercises are less anaerobic than lower-body exercises. ”
  10. Using Sit-to-Stand Workstations in Offices: Is There a Compensation Effect?  9“The findings suggest that introducing a sit-to-stand workstation can significantly reduce sedentary time and increase light activity levels during working hours. However, these changes were compensated for by reducing activity and increasing sitting outside of working hours. An intervention of a sit-to-stand workstation should be accompanied by an intervention outside of working hours to limit behavior compensation.”
  11. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain  10“insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake—especially at night after dinner—was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance.”
  12. Energy expenditure in the etiology of human obesity: spendthrift and thrifty metabolic phenotypes and energy-sensing mechanisms  11“Recently, studies evaluating the adaptive response of one component to perturbations of the other component of energy balance have revealed both the existence of differing metabolic phenotypes ("spendthrift" and "thrifty") resulting from overeating or underfeeding, as well as energy-sensing mechanisms linking EE to food intake, which might explain the propensity of an individual to weight gain.”
  13. Small organs with a high metabolic rate explain lower resting energy expenditure in African American than in white adults  12“The mass of selected high-metabolic-rate organs (sum of liver, heart, spleen, kidneys, and brain) after adjustment for fat, FFM, sex, and age was significantly (P < 0.001) smaller in African Americans than in whites (3.1 and 3.4 kg, respectively; x̄  ± SEE difference: 0.30 ± 0.06 kg). In a multiple regression analysis with fat, FFM, sex, age, and race as predictors of REE, the addition of the total mass rendered race nonsignificant.”

Important energy expenditure researchers

Christopher Scott

Klaas R Westerterp

(List will be updated with more researchers)

Energy Expenditure (EE)

General reviews (8)

  1. Influence of diet and exercise on energy expenditure--a review
  2. The impact of exercise and diet restriction on daily energy expenditure “The hypothesis is that combining diet and exercise will accelerate fat loss, preserve fat-free weight and prevent or decelerate the decline in resting metabolic rate more effectively than with diet restriction alone. The optimal combination of diet and exercise, however, remains elusive. It appears that the combination of a large quantity of aerobic exercise with a very low calorie diet resulting in substantial loss of bodyweight may actually accelerate the decline in resting metabolic rate. These findings may cause us to re-examine the quantity of exercise and diet needed to achieve optimal fat loss and preservation of resting metabolic rate.”
  3. Interpreting energy expenditure for anaerobic exercise and recovery: an anaerobic hypothesis
  4. Quantifying the Immediate Recovery Energy Expenditure of Resistance Training (PDF Download Available): “The energy expenditure of recovery is essentially all-aerobic; lactate and fat appear to be the major fuels oxidized in recovery (neither consists of anaerobic metabolic breakdown), non–steady-state O 2 uptake plummets rapidly, whereas CO 2 production appears to surge immediately in recovery, and EPOC has been suggested to not represent glycolytic ATP resynthesis; all of these concepts are effectively acknowledged by a single recovery energy expenditure conversion of 1 L of O 2 uptake = 19.6 kJ. This conversion can be used as a standard means of quantifying (aerobic) recovery energy expenditure immediately after a single bout of weight lifting or in-between sets of weight lifting.”
  5. Variability in energy expenditure and its components
  6. Total Energy Expenditure, Energy Intake, and Body Composition in Endurance Athletes Across the Training Season: A Systematic Review: “TEE of endurance athletes was significantly higher during the competition phase than during the preparation phase (p < 0.001) and significantly higher than energy intake in both phases (p < 0.001). During the competition phase, both body mass and fat-free mass were significantly higher compared to other seasonal training phases (p < 0.05).”
  7. Analysis of energy metabolism in humans: A review of methodologies
  8. Contributing factors and variability of energy expenditure in non-obese, obese, and post-obese adolescents: “The objectives of this paper were to review the contributing factors of the main components of daily EE (DEE) and the inter-individual variability in these components in non-obese (NOb), obese (Ob), and post-obese (POb) adolescents. Body composition especially fat-free mass (FFM), is the major determinant of the basal metabolic rate which contributes 50-70% of DEE, whereas fat mass (FM) is a significant factor only in obese subjects. Physical activity is the second main variation factor of DEE, whereas growth, the thermic effect of food, and thermoregulation are generally of marginal importance.”

Nutrition, supplements, and EE (25)

  1. Effect of Dietary Protein Content on Weight Gain, Energy Expenditure, and Body Composition During Overeating - A Randomized Controlled Trial (metabolic ward study)
  2. Effect of dairy proteins on appetite, energy expenditure, body weight, and composition: a review of the evidence from controlled clinical trials
  3. Irregular meal-pattern effects on energy expenditure, metabolism, and appetite regulation: a randomized controlled trial in healthy normal-weight w..
  4. Energy expenditure and body composition changes after an isocaloric ketogenic diet in overweight and obese men
  5. Effect of fat-reduced diets on 24-h energy expenditure: comparisons between animal protein, vegetable protein, and carbohydrate
  6. Food intake measured by an automated food-selection system: relationship to energy expenditure
  7. Higher Daily Energy Expenditure and Respiratory Quotient, Rather Than Fat-Free Mass, Independently Determine Greater ad Libitum Overeating
  8. Role of resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure in hunger and appetite control: a new formulation
  9. Meta-analysis: Impact of carbohydrate vs. fat calories on energy expenditure and body fatness
  10. Effect of Dietary Protein Content on Weight Gain, Energy Expenditure, and Body Composition During Overeating | Nutrition | JAMA | The JAMA Network
  11. Normal Protein Intake Is Required for Body Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance, and Elevated Protein Intake for Additional Preservation of Resting Energy Expenditure and Fat Free Mass
  12. Effect of protein overfeeding on energy expenditure measured in a metabolic chamber
  13. Effects of dietary composition on energy expenditure during weight-loss maintenance
  14. A randomized cross-over study of the effects of macronutrient composition and meal frequency on GLP-1, ghrelin and energy expenditure in humans
  15. Postprandial energy expenditure in whole-food and processed-food meals: implications for daily energy expenditure
  16. Role of Energy Expenditure in the Differential Weight Loss in Obese Women on Low-Fat and Low-Carbohydrate Diets | The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism | Oxford Academic
  17. Protein supplements after weight loss do not improve weight maintenance compared with recommended dietary protein intake despite beneficial effects on appetite sensation and energy expenditure: a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial
  18. Increased Protein Intake during Overfeeding Increases Energy Expenditure, Satiety, and Urinary Cortisol : Obesity: Human Studies in Body Weight Regulation
  19. Effects of dietary macronutrient distribution on resting and post-exercise metabolism | Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition | Full Text
  20. (See Additional file 4: Figure S3) Postprandial energy metabolism and substrate oxidation in response to the inclusion of a sugar- or non-nutritive sweetened beverage with meals differing in protein content | BMC Nutrition | Full Text
  21. Effects of Dietary Composition During Weight Loss Maintenance: A Controlled Feeding Study: “During isocaloric feeding following weight loss, declines in resting and total energy expenditure varied by dietary glycemic load and were least with the [very-low-carbohydrate] diet, intermediate with the [low-glycemic index] diet, and greatest with the [low-fat] diet.”
  22. Fat and carbohydrate overfeeding in humans: different effects on energy storage: “Carbohydrate overfeeding produced progressive increases in carbohydrate oxidation and total energy expenditure resulting in 75-85% of excess energy being stored. Alternatively, fat overfeeding had minimal effects on fat oxidation and total energy expenditure, leading to storage of 90-95% of excess energy. Excess dietary fat leads to greater fat accumulation than does excess dietary carbohydrate, and the difference was greatest early in the overfeeding period. ”
  23. Influence of A Thermogenic Dietary Supplement on Safety Markers, Body Composition, Energy Expenditure, Muscular Performance and Hormone Concentrations: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial (PDF Download Available)
  24. Water-Induced Thermogenesis | The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism | Oxford Academic
  25. Water-induced thermogenesis and fat oxidation: a reassessment
  26. Effects of weight gain induced by controlled overfeeding on physical activity (metabolic ward study)

General physical activity: effects on energy expenditure (9)

  1. Increased resting energy expenditure after 40 minutes of aerobic but not resistance exercise
  2. Twenty-four–hour analysis of elevated energy expenditure after physical activity in a metabolic chamber: models of daily total energy expenditure
  3. Effect of exercise intensity on 24-h energy expenditure and nutrient oxidation.
  4. Energy expenditure during 2-day trail walking in the mountains (2,857 m) and the effects of amino acid supplementation in older men and women
  5. Compensation of Physical Activity and Sedentary Time in Primary School Children
  6. Comparison of energy expenditure to walk or run a mile in adult normal weight and overweight men and women
  7. Impact of Prescribed Exercise on Physical Activity Compensation in Young Adults
  8. Physical activity, total and regional obesity: dose-response considerations “In response to well-controlled, short-term trials, increasing physical activity expressed as energy expended per week is positively related to reductions in total adiposity in a dose-response manner. Although physical activity is associated with reduction in abdominal and visceral fat, there is insufficient evidence to determine a dose-response relationship.”
  9. Using Sit-to-Stand Workstations in Offices: Is There a Compensation Effect? “The findings suggest that introducing a sit-to-stand workstation can significantly reduce sedentary time and increase light activity levels during working hours. However, these changes were compensated for by reducing activity and increasing sitting outside of working hours. An intervention of a sit-to-stand workstation should be accompanied by an intervention outside of working hours to limit behavior compensation.”

Hormones (2)

  1. Thyroid Hormone as a Determinant of Energy Expenditure and the Basal Metabolic Rate
  2. Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Metabolism

Concurrent / combined training (5)

  1. Cardiovascular Fitness and Energy Expenditure Response during a Combined Aerobic and Circuit Weight Training Protocol
  2. Energy Expenditure During Concurrent Training: Influence Of Intra-session Exercise Sequence And Aerobic Exercise Modality
  3. Cardiovascular Fitness and Energy Expenditure Response during a Combined Aerobic and Circuit Weight Training Protocol
  4. Effects of Endurance and Resistance Training on Total Daily Energy Expenditure in Young Women: A Controlled Randomized Trial: “TEE did not significantly change when measured subsequent to the endurance or resistance training programs. Absolute resting metabolic rate increased in resistance-trained women but not when adjusted for fat-free mass. No change in physical activity energy expenditure was found in any of the groups. These results suggest that endurance and resistance training does not chronically alter TEE in free-living young women.”
  5. Comparison of oxygen uptake during and after the execution of resistance exercises and exercises performed on ergometers, matched for intensity

Endurance and HIIT (6)

  1. Interpreting Anaerobic and Total Energy Expenditure for Brief Non- Exhaustive Exercise and Recovery
  2. Energy Expenditure and Fitness Response Following Once Weekly Hill Climbing at Low Altitude (PDF Download Available)
  3. Total daily energy expenditure is increased following a single bout of sprint interval training: “the magnitude of increase was 946 ± 62 kJ/day (∼10%) [~226 kcal]. These data provide support for [sprint interval training] as a strategy for increasing TDEE”
  4. Changes in Weight, Waist Circumference and Compensatory Responses with Different Doses of Exercise among Sedentary, Overweight Postmenopausal Women
  5. Potential Causes of Elevated REE following High-Intensity Exercise “Under energy balance conditions REE increased 22 hours following both moderate intensity and high intensity exercise. Exercise-induced muscle damage/repair and increased sympathetic tone may contribute to increased REE whereas uncoupled phosphorylation does not. These results suggest that moderate to high intensity exercise may be valuable for increasing energy expenditure for at least 22 hours following the exercise.”
  6. The effect of fasted vs fed high-intensity interval exercise on metabolism and diet - ProQuest

Strength training (31)

  1. High-Intensity Interval Resistance Training (HIRT) influences resting energy expenditure and respiratory ratio in non-dieting individuals
  2. Acute effects of resistance exercise on energy expenditure: revisiting the impact of the training variables
  3. Resistance training volume and post exercise energy expenditure
  4. Aerobic Energy Expenditure During Recreational Weight Training in Females and Males
  5. Energy expenditure before, during, and after the bench press
  6. Quantifying the immediate recovery energy expenditure of resistance training
  7. The effects of intensity of exercise on excess postexercise oxygen consumption and energy expenditure in moderately trained men and women
  8. High-Intensity Interval Resistance Training (HIRT) influences resting energy expenditure and respiratory ratio in non-dieting individuals
  9. Postexercise energy expenditure in response to acute aerobic or resistive exercise
  10. The effect of time-under-tension and weight lifting cadence on aerobic, anaerobic, and recovery energy expenditures: 3 submaximal sets
  11. Combustion, Respiration and Intermittent Exercise: A Theoretical Perspective on Oxygen Uptake and Energy Expenditure (PDF Download Available)
  12. Energy expenditure characteristics of weight lifting: 2 sets to fatigue
  13. One-set resistance training elevates energy expenditure for 72 h similar to three sets: “REE was significantly (p < 0.05) elevated (~5% or ~ 400 kJ day−1) in both the protocols at 24, 48, and 72 h post RT bout compared with baseline (...) A one-set RT bout following the ACSM guidelines for RT and requiring only ~ 15 min to complete was as effective as a three-set RT bout (~ 35 min to complete) in elevating REE for up to 72 h post RT in overweight college males”
  14. Resting Energy Expenditure and Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness After Full-Body Resistance Training With an Eccentric Concentration
  15. Acute effects of different weight training methods on energy expenditure in trained men
  16. Differences in energy expenditure between high- and low-volume training (PDF Download Available)
  17. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs | SpringerPlus | Full Text
  18. Effect of Explosive versus Slow Contractions and Exercise Intensity on Energy Expenditure
  19. Effect of acute resistance exercise on postexercise energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate
  20. Energy expenditure following a bout of non-steady state resistance exercise
  21. Energy expenditure during bench press and squat exercises: “RT at 65% 1RM burns approximately 15 kcal * min. At that rate, only 1 hour per week of RT results in an expenditure of ~900 kcal”
  22. Aerobic and Anaerobic Energy During Resistance Exercise at 80% 1RM
  23. Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Response and Metabolic Cost of Circuit Versus Traditional Weight Training
  24. Caloric Expenditure Post-Isocaloric Bouts of Steady State Exercise and High Intensity Interval Training
  25. Energy cost of isolated resistance exercises across low- to high-intensities (PDF Download Available) “This study revealed that low-intensity resistance exercise provides energy cost comprised between 3 and 10 kcalmin⁻¹. Energy cost rose past 20 kcalmin⁻¹ at 80% 1-RM in leg exercise. In addition, at 80% 1-RM, it was found that upper body exercises are less anaerobic than lower-body exercises. ”
  26. Energy Cost of Resistance Exercises: an Uptade: “(...) it is concluded that knowledge on the energy cost in resistance exercises is in its early days and that much research is warranted before appropriate reference values may be proposed.”
  27. Energy cost of the ACSM single-set resistance training protocol
  28. Metabolic Cost of a Preparatory Phase of Training in Weight Lifting: A Practical Observation “The metabolic cost of weight training, especially [in] advanced programs, has been poorly researched and is poorly understood. This study describes the metabolic, heart rate, and blood pressure responses of three weight lifters during a week of preparation phase training. Oxygen uptake ( [latin capital V with dot above]O2) was measured with a Beckman MMC, resting heart rate (RHR) by palpitation, and resting blood pressure (RBP) by auscultation. Twelve workouts were performed during the week. The average caloric expenditure (L O2 x 5 + Kcal) was 9.4Kcal [middle dot] min-1 and 3918 Kcal /wk. Larger muscle mass exercises (i.e., squats, pulls, etc.) averaged 11.5 Kcal [middle dot] min-1, and small muscle mass exercises (i.e., bench press, sit-ups, etc.) averaged 68 Kcal [middle dot] min.-1.”
  29. Oxygen Consumption and Substrate Utilization During and After Resistance Exercises Performed with Different Muscle Mass “The increases of EE and fat oxidation during post-exercise recovery were greater after multiple sets of resistance exercises performed with larger muscle mass than smaller muscle mass. This finding has practical implications for resistance training designed as part of weight management programs.”
  30. Prediction of the oxygen cost of the deadlift exercise “Care should be taken when converting oxygen cost to energy expenditure values using non-protein R equivalents, since underestimations are likely, due to the heavy glycolytic involvement.”
  31. The metabolic costs of reciprocal supersets vs. traditional resistance exercise in young recreationally active adults “Reciprocal supersets produced greater exercise kJ.min, blood lactate, and EPOC than did TRAD. Incorporating this method of resistance exercise may benefit exercisers attempting to increase EE and have a fixed exercise volume with limited exercise time available.”

Sleep (3)

  1. Effect of shortened sleep on energy expenditure, core body temperature, and appetite: a human randomised crossover trial
  2. Acute sleep deprivation reduces energy expenditure in healthy men
  3. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain: “We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake—especially at night after dinner—was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed.”

Aging (1)

  1. Energy expenditure and aging

Total Daily Energy Expenditure (TDEE) (5)

  1. Variation in total energy expenditure in young healthy free-living men
  2. Energy expenditure and substrate metabolism measured by 24 h whole-body calorimetry in patients receiving cyclic and continuous total parenteral nu..
  3. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans
  4. Effects of exercise intensity on 24-h energy expenditure and substrate oxidation
  5. Energy requirements of US Army Special Operation Forces during military training: “Thirty-one soldiers taking part in Pre-Mission Training (PMT n = 15) and Combat Diver Qualification Courses (CDQC n = 16) volunteered to participate in this observational study. Energy expenditure was determined using doubly labeled water. Body weight (83 ± 7 kg) remained stable during both training periods. Overall energy expenditure adjusted for body composition was 17,606 ± 2326 kJ·day(-1). Energy expenditure was 19,110 ± 1468 kJ·day(-1) during CDQC and 16,334 ± 2180 kJ·day(-1) during PMT, with physical activity levels of 2.6 ± 0.2 and 2.2 ± 0.3 during CDQC and PMT, respectively. Compared to the Military Dietary Reference Intakes for energy (13,598 kJ·day(-1)), these data are in agreement with previous reports that energy requirement for SOF Soldiers exceed that of the average soldier.”

Genetics and epigenetics (1)

  1. Energy expenditure in the etiology of human obesity: spendthrift and thrifty metabolic phenotypes and energy-sensing mechanisms “Recently, studies evaluating the adaptive response of one component to perturbations of the other component of energy balance have revealed both the existence of differing metabolic phenotypes ("spendthrift" and "thrifty") resulting from overeating or underfeeding, as well as energy-sensing mechanisms linking EE to food intake, which might explain the propensity of an individual to weight gain.”

Weight loss and gain (4)

  1. Surgical weight loss: impact on energy expenditure
  2. Changes in Energy Expenditure with Weight Gain and Weight Loss in Humans
  3. Weight loss leads to a marked decrease in nonresting energy expenditure in ambulatory human subjects
  4. Resting energy expenditure in short-term starvation is increased as a result of an increase in serum norepinephrine

Other (3)

  1. Low energy intake plus low energy expenditure (low energy flux), not energy surfeit, predicts future body fat gain
  2. Discrete BDNF Neurons in the Paraventricular Hypothalamus Control Feeding and Energy Expenditure
  3. What processes are involved in the appetite response to moderate increases in exercise-induced energy expenditure? - PubMed - NCBI

Energy Balance (EB)

General reviews (10)

  1. The energy balance equation: looking back and looking forward are two very different views
  2. Energy balance, energy turnover, and risk of body fat gain
  3. Clinical Review: Regulation of Food Intake, Energy Balance, and Body Fat Mass: Implications for the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Obesity
  4. Energy balance and obesity: what are the main drivers? - PubMed - NCBI
  5. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the regulation of energy balance
  6. "Calories in, calories out" and macronutrient intake: The Hope, Hype, and Science of Calories. | Endocrinology and Metabolism
  7. Dissecting the energy needs of the body
  8. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and the Evolutionary Biology of Energy Balance: “The human body adapts dynamically to maintain total energy expenditure, TEE, within a narrow physiological range. Rather than increasing with physical activity in a dose-dependent manner, experimental and ecological evidence indicates that TEE is a relatively constrained product of our evolved physiology. The body adapts to changes in physical activity to keep total energy expenditure in check.”
  9. The dynamics of human body weight change
  10. The selfish brain: competition for energy resources

Nutrition and EB (18)

  1. The influence of post-exercise macronutrient intake on energy balance and protein metabolism in active females participating in endurance training
  2. Reciprocal Compensation to Changes in Dietary Intake and Energy Expenditure within the Concept of Energy Balance
  3. Skeletal Muscle Responses to Negative Energy Balance: Effects of Dietary Protein
  4. Low-calorie sweetener use and energy balance: Results from experimental studies in animals, and large-scale prospective studies in humans
  5. The causal role of breakfast in energy balance and health: a randomized controlled trial in lean adults
  6. Bath Breakfast Project (BBP) - Examining the role of extended daily fasting in human energy balance and associated health outcomes: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN31521726]
  7. Substituting whole grains for refined grains in a 6-wk randomized trial favorably affects energy-balance metrics in healthy men and postmenopausal women
  8. Compared with nibbling, neither gorging nor a morning fast affect short-term energy balance in obese patients in a chamber calorimeter
  9. Negative energy balance in male and female rangers: effects of 7 d of sustained exercise and food deprivation
  10. Impact of breakfast skipping compared with dinner skipping on regulation of energy balance and metabolic risk
  11. Critical evaluation of food intake and energy balance in young modern pentathlon athletes: a cross-sectional study | Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition | Full Text
  12. Increased Protein Intake during Overfeeding Increases Energy Expenditure, Satiety, and Urinary Cortisol : Obesity: Human Studies in Body Weight Regulation
  13. Appetite and energy balancing
  14. Dietary carbohydrates, components of energy balance, and associated health outcomes
  15. Energy intake and expenditure assessed ‘in-season’ in an elite European rugby union squad
  16. Exercising in the Fasted State Reduced 24-Hour Energy Intake in Active Male Adults (PDF Download Available)
  17. Licence to eat: Information on energy expended during exercise affects subsequent energy intake
  18. Short-term, mixed-diet overfeeding in man: no evidence for "luxuskonsumption" “This study shows that approximately one-quarter of the excess energy intake was dissipated through an increase in EE, with 75% being stored in the body.”

EB and hormones (5)

  1. Anabolic and catabolic hormones and energy balance of the male bodybuilders during the preparation for the competition
  2. Changes Of Key Hormones And Muscle Mass During Positive Or Negative Energy Balance In Athletes
  3. Serotonin and the regulation of mammalian energy balance | Neuroscience
  4. Leptin's Physiologic Role: Does the Emperor of Energy Balance Have No Clothes?: Cell Metabolism
  5. Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Metabolism

Exercise and EB (8)

  1. Long-term effect of physical activity on energy balance and body composition
  2. Resistance training and energy balance
  3. "Effect of Acute High Intensity Interval Exercise and Energy Balance o" by Calvin L. Cole, Walter R. Thompson et al.
  4. Exercise-induced suppression of appetite: effects on food intake and implications for energy balance
  5. Effects of exercise on appetite control: implications for energy balance
  6. Compensatory Changes in Energy Balance Regulation Over One Athletic Season,
  7. Long-term effect of physical activity on energy balance and body composition | British Journal of Nutrition | Cambridge Core
  8. The effects of exercise-training on energy balance and adipose tissue morphology and metabolism

Mechanisms (3)

  1. Hypothalamic AMPK: a canonical regulator of whole-body energy balance
  2. Cross-talk between AMPK and mTOR in regulating energy balance (PDF Download Available)
  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates energy balance downstream of melanocortin-4 receptor

Sleep (5)

  1. Partial sleep deprivation and energy balance in adults: an emerging issue for consideration by dietetics practitioners
  2. Phenotypic Stability of Energy Balance Responses to Experimental Total Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Restriction in Healthy Adults
  3. The Role of Sleep Duration in the Regulation of Energy Balance: Effects on Energy Intakes and Expenditure
  4. Consequences Of Chronic Sleep Restriction On Energy Balance In Healthy Adults
  5. Phenotypic vulnerability of energy balance responses to sleep loss in healthy adults

Glial cells (2)

  1. Glia: silent partners in energy homeostasis and obesity pathogenesis
  2. Glial cells and energy balance

Other  (12)

  1. Energy balance, body composition, sedentariness and appetite regulation: pathways to obesity
  2. Appetite regulation in response to sitting and energy imbalance
  3. The Energy Balance Equation : Bodyrecomposition
  4. The maintenance of energy balance is compromised after weight loss
  5. The Importance of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Controlling Food Intake and Regulating Energy Balance
  6. (See erratum) Metabolic adaptation following massive weight loss is related to the degree of energy imbalance and changes in circulating leptin - Knuth - 2014 - Obesity - Wiley Online Library
  7. Erratum: Metabolic adaptation following massive weight loss is related to the degree of energy imbalance and changes in circulating leptin - Knuth - 2016 - Obesity - Wiley Online Library
  8. Quantification of the effect of energy imbalance on bodyweight
  9. Predicting successful long-term weight loss from short-term weight-loss outcomes: new insights from a dynamic energy balance model (the POUNDS Lost..
  10. Establishing energy requirements for body weight maintenance: validation of an intake-balance method
  11. Neurotrophic factor control of satiety and body weight: “Energy balance--that is, the relationship between energy intake and energy expenditure--is regulated by a complex interplay of hormones, brain circuits and peripheral tissues. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived cytokine that suppresses appetite and increases energy expenditure. Ironically, obese individuals have high levels of plasma leptin and are resistant to leptin treatment. Neurotrophic factors, particularly ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are also important for the control of body weight. CNTF can overcome leptin resistance in order to reduce body weight, although CNTF and leptin activate similar signalling cascades. Mutations in the gene encoding BDNF lead to insatiable appetite and severe obesity.”

Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC)

Reviews (2)

  1. Effects of exercise intensity and duration on the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption: “EPOC comprises only 6 – 15% of the net total oxygen cost of the exercise. But this figure may need to be increased [with intermittent work]”
  2. Metabolic bases of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption: a review

Nutrition and EE (1)

  1. Dietary macronutrient distribution influences post-exercise substrate utilization in women: A cross-sectional evaluation of metabolic flexibility: “Metabolic flexibility is the ability to alter substrate utilization in response to substrate availability, which may influence health and performance. (...) Results suggest that high PRO and low CHO intakes are associated with greater metabolic flexibility in women.”

Endurance / interval training (5)

  1. The effect of exercise intensity and duration on the oxygen deficit and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption | SpringerLink
  2. Effect of continuous and intermittent bouts of isocaloric cycling and running exercise on excess postexercise oxygen consumption - ScienceDirect
  3. The effects of intensity of exercise on excess postexercise oxygen consumption and energy expenditure in moderately trained men and women
  4. Excess Postexercise Oxygen Consumption After High-Intensity and Sprint Interval Exercise, and Continuous Steady-State Exercise
  5. The acute effect of exercise modality and nutrition manipulations on post-exercise resting energy expenditure and respiratory exchange ratio in women: a randomized trial

Strength training (9)

  1. (Squats) Effects of exercise-induced muscle damage on resting metabolic rate, sub-maximal running and post-exercise oxygen consumption: European Journal of Sport Science: Vol 14, No 4
  2. Effect of acute caffeine ingestion on EPOC after intense resistance training: “Caffeine ingestion in individuals regularly completing rigorous resistance training significantly increases EPOC and energy expenditure pre-and post-exercise, yet the magnitude of this effect is relatively small.”
  3. Effects of load-volume on EPOC after acute bouts of resistance training in resistance-trained men: “high-intensity RT with load-volumes of up to 20,000 kg using resistance-trained men does not significantly increase EPOC above baseline RMR”
  4. Effect of an acute period of resistance exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption: implications for body mass management | SpringerLink: “These results suggest that EPOC duration following resistance exercise extends well beyond the previously reported duration of 16 h.”
  5. Effect of Resistance Training on Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption: “the amount of exercising skeletal mass is an additional variable to consider when relating exercise to EPOC.”
  6. Effect of Training Status on Oxygen Consumption in Women After Resistance Exercise
  7. Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Response and Metabolic Cost of Circuit Versus Traditional Weight Training
  8. Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Excess Postexercise Oxygen Consumption Energy Expenditure of Muscular Endurance and Strength: 1-Set of Bench Press to Muscular Fatigue (PDF Download Available) “overall work and energy expenditure were related (r = 0.87, p = 0.001). Anaerobic exercise and recovery energy expenditure were significantly larger for all strength lifts as compared with aerobic exercise energy expenditure (p < 0.001). For the muscular endurance lifts, anaerobic energy expenditure was larger than recovery energy expenditure (p < 0.001) that in turn was larger than aerobic exercise energy expenditure (p < 0.001).”
  9. Effect of acute resistance exercise on postexercise oxygen consumption and resting metabolic rate in young women “Resting metabolic rate was increased by 4.2% (p<.05) from Day 1 (morning prior to exercise: 1,419 +/- 58 kcal/24hr) compared to Day 2 (16 hr following exercise: 1,479 +/- kcal/24hr). Resting fat oxidation as determined by the respiratory exchange ratio was also significantly elevated on Day 2 compared to Day 1. These results indicate that among young women, acute strenuous resistance exercise of the nature used in this study is capable of producing modest but prolonged elevations of postexercise metabolic rate and possibly fat oxidation.”

Concurrent / combined training (4)

  1. EPOC Comparison Between Isocaloric Bouts of Steady-State Aerobic, Intermittent Aerobic, and Resistance Training: “Both RT and [HIIT] increased EPOC to a greater degree than did [LISS], indicating that either mode may be more effective at increasing total daily caloric expenditure than SS aerobic exercise.”
  2. High- and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in men with metabolic syndrome - Larsen - 2013 - Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports - Wiley Online Library
  3. Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) following multiple effort sprint and moderate aerobic exercise: “EPOC values were significantly higher in [Sprint intervals](7.5±1.3 L) than [Moderate Aerobic exercise] (1.8±0.7 L). [Sprint intervals] produced a higher recovery caloric expenditure (156.9 kJ) compared to MA (41.0 kJ) and remained significantly elevated (p=.024) over resting levels during the entire recovery period (30 minutes)”
  4. The effects of interval- vs. continuous exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and substrate oxidation rates in subjects with type 2 diabetes - ScienceDirect

Effect of feeding and fasting on excess postexercise oxygen consumption (3)

  1. High-CHO diet increases post-exercise oxygen consumption after a supramaximal exercise bout
  2. Effect of feeding and fasting on excess postexercise oxygen consumption
  3. Interaction between dietary fat and exercise on excess postexercise oxygen consumption | Endocrinology and Metabolism

Other (1)

  1. Re-interpreting anaerobic metabolism: an argument for the application of both anaerobic glycolysis and excess post-exercise oxygen comsumption (EPOC) “Care must be taken when using O2 uptake alone to quantify energy expenditure because various high-intensity exercise models reveal that O2 uptake can lag behind estimated energy demands or exceed them. The independent bioenergetics behind anaerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration can acknowledge these discrepancies. Anaerobic glycolysis is an additive component to an exercise O2 uptake measurement. Moreover, it is the assumptions behind steady-state O2 uptake that do not permit proper interpretation of energy expenditure during EPOC; 1 l O2 not = 20.9 kJ. Using both the O2 deficit and a modified EPOC for interpretation, rather than one or the other, leads to a better method of quantifying energy expenditure for higher intensity exercise and recovery.”

Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)

  1. Chair-based fidgeting and energy expenditure
  2. Energy expenditure of nonexercise activity
  3. Central neural and endocrine mechanisms of non-exercise activity thermogenesis and their potential impact on obesity
  4. Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)
  5. The Role of Non-exercise Activity Thermogenesis in Human Obesity - PubMed - NCBI
  6. Nonexercise Activity Thermogenesis in Obesity Management (PDF Download Available)
  7. Effect of Exercise Training on Non-Exercise Physical Activity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials | SpringerLink
  8. Hyperactivity in Anorexia Nervosa: Warming Up Not Just Burning-Off Calories
  9. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT): environment and biology
  10. Resistance to weight gain during overfeeding: a NEAT explanation “Individuals in whom overeating effectively activates NEAT dissipate as much as 69% of the excess energy as heat. Those less able to activate NEAT store a higher proportion of the excess calories as fat. Other studies have shown that genotype is an important determinant of resistance to overfeeding-induced weight gain. Spontaneous weight gain is accompanied by rises in plasma norepinephrine, insulin, and leptin levels, suggesting that a change in autonomic nervous system activity or in pattern of hormonal secretion might play a role in the activation of overeating-induced NEAT”
  11. The importance of non-exercise physical activity for cardiovascular health and longevity | British Journal of Sports Medicine
  12. The potential yield of non-exercise physical activity energy expenditure in public health
  13. The effect of exercise on non-exercise physical activity and sedentary behavior in adults

Resting and Basal Metabolic Rate (RMR/BMR)

General reviews (3)

  1. The Role of Diet and Exercise for the Maintenance of Fat-Free Mass and Resting Metabolic Rate During Weight Loss (PDF Download Available): “Changes in RMR can only partly be accounted for by alterations in respiring tissues, and other yet-undefined mechanisms have to be explored.”
  2. Physical activity and resting metabolic rate: “Many studies have shown that long-term training increases RMR, but many other studies have failed to find such effects. Data concerning long-term effects of training are potentially confounded by some studies not leaving sufficient time after the last exercise bout for the termination of the long-term EPOC. Long-term effects of training include increases in RMR due to increases in lean muscle mass. Extreme interventions, however, may induce reductions in RMR, in spite of the increased lean tissue mass, similar to the changes observed in animals in response to flight.”
  3. Does basal metabolic rate predict weight gain? - PubMed - NCBI

Exercise and physical activity (10)

  1. Physical activity and resting metabolic rate - download.php
  2. Effect of acute resistance exercise on postexercise oxygen consumption and resting metabolic rate in young women
  3. A review: exercise and its influence on resting energy metabolism in man: “The [thermic effect of activity] is the most variable component of daily energy expenditure and can constitute 15 to 30% of 24-h energy expenditure”
  4. Effect of 3 weeks of detraining on the resting metabolic rate and body composition of trained males
  5. Appetite, energy intake and resting metabolic responses to 60 min treadmill running performed in a fasted versus a postprandial state
  6. (Untrained) Effects of resistance vs. aerobic training combined with an 800 calorie liquid diet on lean body mass and resting metabolic rate
  7. Effects of exercise-induced muscle damage on resting metabolic rate, sub-maximal running and post-exercise oxygen consumption: European Journal of Sport Science: Vol 14, No 4
  8. BodyPump versus traditional heavy load resistance training on changes in resting metabolic rate in overweight untrained women
  9. Effect of acute resistance exercise on postexercise energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate
  10. The effects of either high-intensity resistance or endurance training on resting metabolic rate

Nutrition (2)

  1. Effects of carbohydrate quantity and glycemic index on resting metabolic rate and body composition during weight loss - Karl - 2015 - Obesity - Wiley Online Library
  2. The Effect of Intermittent Fasting on Resting Metabolism

Observational studies (5)

  1. Prevalence of low resting metabolic rate and associated health consequences among well-trained male Norwegian endurance athletes
  2. Influence of segmental body composition and adiposity hormones on resting metabolic rate and substrate utilization in overweight and obese adults: “Segmental evaluation of body composition, specifically in the lower extremities and abdomen, may be an effective and efficient way to evaluate metabolic status. Sex-specific evaluations are also imperative. Influence of segmental body composition and adiposity hormones on resting metabolic rate and substrate utilization in overweight and obese adults.”
  3. Variability of measured resting metabolic rate: “Repeated morning and evening measurements of RMR were stable and highly correlated. Day-to-day measurements of RMR were not significantly different. RMR measured in the afternoon after a 4-h fast and exercise was ≈100 kcal/d higher than RMR measured in the morning”
  4. Influence of distribution of lean body mass on resting metabolic rate after weight loss and weight regain: comparison of responses in white and black women: “RMR, adjusted for total LBM and fat mass, was significantly higher in white women after weight loss (P < 0.01) and regain (P < 0.01). However, no racial difference was found when RMR was adjusted for LBM distribution.”
  5. Low resting metabolic rate in subjects predisposed to obesity: a role for thyroid status: “The present study shows that RMR for a given body composition is lower among postobese than among matched never-obese control subjects. Statistically, the lower plasma free triiodothyronine concentrations of the postobese subjects could explain their lower RMRs, but it remains to be established whether these findings are causally related.”

Weight loss and RMR (4)

  1. Decrease in resting metabolic rate during rapid weight loss is reversed by low dose thyroid hormone treatment
  2. The associations of resting metabolic rate with chronic conditions and weight loss
  3. Repetitive weight loss and weight regain: effects on weight reduction, resting metabolic rate, and lipolytic activity before and after exercise and..
  4. Elevated metabolic rates in obesity: “The high R.M.R. in the obese state was related not to the excess fat but to a 36% and 32% increase in the lean body mass of the men and women respectively. The R.M.R.s of 30 patients measured during weight-loss fell. The increase in R.M.R. in obesity is an important mechanism for achieving energy balance, whereas the progressive fall in R.M.R. during slimming demonstrates the need for a permanent reduction in food intake if energy balance is to be maintained on reaching normal weight. Measuring only the R.M.R. in the obese state is unlikely to help in understanding the pathogenesis of obesity.”

Calculating RMR (1)

  1. The accuracy of resting metabolic rate prediction equations in athletes

Other (3)

  1. Role of resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure in hunger and appetite control: a new formulation
  2. Investigating predictors of eating: is resting metabolic rate really the strongest proxy of energy intake? - PubMed - NCBI
  3. Resting metabolic rate varies by race and by sleep duration “Resting metabolic rate—the largest component of energy expenditure—decreased after sleep restriction (−2.6%, p=0.032) and returned to baseline levels after recovery sleep. No changes in resting metabolic rate were observed in control subjects. Relative to Caucasians (n=14), African Americans (n=22) exhibited comparable daily caloric intake but a lower resting metabolic rate (p=0.043) and higher respiratory quotient (p=0.013) regardless of sleep duration.”

Metabolic rates of organs

  1. Evaluation of Specific Metabolic Rates of Major Organs and Tissues: Comparison Between Men and Women
  2. Effect of Constitution on Mass of Individual Organs and Their Association with Metabolic Rate in Humans—A Detailed View on Allometric Scaling
  3. Specific metabolic rates of major organs and tissues across adulthood: evaluation by mechanistic model of resting energy expenditure
  4. Evaluation of Specific Metabolic Rates of Major Organs and Tissues: Comparison Between Nonobese and Obese Women “In conclusion, although Elia’s Ki values were validated in nonobese women, obesity-adjustments are appropriate for application in obese women.”
  5. Small organs with a high metabolic rate explain lower resting energy expenditure in African American than in white adults “The mass of selected high-metabolic-rate organs (sum of liver, heart, spleen, kidneys, and brain) after adjustment for fat, FFM, sex, and age was significantly (P < 0.001) smaller in African Americans than in whites (3.1 and 3.4 kg, respectively; x̄  ± SEE difference: 0.30 ± 0.06 kg). In a multiple regression analysis with fat, FFM, sex, age, and race as predictors of REE, the addition of the total mass rendered race nonsignificant.”
  6. Specific metabolic rates of major organs and tissues across adulthood: evaluation by mechanistic model of resting energy expenditure
  7. Larger mass of high-metabolic-rate organs does not explain higher resting energy expenditure in children
  8. Brain and high metabolic rate organ mass: contributions to resting energy expenditure beyond fat-free mass
  9. Specific metabolic rates of major organs and tissues across adulthood: Evaluation by mechanistic model of resting energy expenditure

Measuring and estimating energy expenditure

This section details the tools and methods used to measure and estimate energy expenditure.

Ways to measure energy expenditure:

  • Direct calorimetry
  • Indirect calorimetry
  • Doubly labelled water
  • Physical activity log
  • Heart rate
  • Ventilation monitoring

Reviews (6)

  1. Analysis of energy metabolism in humans: A review of methodologies
  2. 2011 Compendium of Physical Activities: a second update of codes and MET values
  3. Intermittent resistance exercise: evolution from the steady state: “Oxygen uptake measurements are without question useful and a staple measurement for the estimation of exercise energy costs. However, steady state models cannot be used to successfully model intermittent resistance exercise energy costs. Our laboratory has taken steps to avoid such comparisons between these discrepant exercises. We have separated out exercise and recovery periods during resistance training and utilize capacity (kJ) estimates as opposed to rate measures (kJ min-1). Moreover, we avoid anaerobic threshold concepts as applied to resistance exercise. When viewed accordingly, resistance exercise energy costs are opposite those of the steady state model: exercise oxygen uptake is highest for steady state exercise and lowest for resistance exercise, recovery oxygen uptake can be the highest energy cost for resistance exercise whereas for steady state exercise it may or may not be meaningful, and anaerobic energy costs represent a significant component of resistance exercise that plays little to no role with steady state exercise.”
  4. Re-interpreting anaerobic metabolism: an argument for the application of both anaerobic glycolysis and excess post-exercise oxygen comsumption (EPOC) “Care must be taken when using O2 uptake alone to quantify energy expenditure because various high-intensity exercise models reveal that O2 uptake can lag behind estimated energy demands or exceed them. The independent bioenergetics behind anaerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration can acknowledge these discrepancies. Anaerobic glycolysis is an additive component to an exercise O2 uptake measurement. Moreover, it is the assumptions behind steady-state O2 uptake that do not permit proper interpretation of energy expenditure during EPOC; 1 l O2 not = 20.9 kJ. Using both the O2 deficit and a modified EPOC for interpretation, rather than one or the other, leads to a better method of quantifying energy expenditure for higher intensity exercise and recovery.”
  5. Assessment of Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure: An Overview of Objective Measures
  6. Exercise, energy expenditure and energy balance, as measured with doubly labelled water

Estimating exercise energy expenditure (6)

  1. Estimating the Energy Costs of Intermittent Exercise: “We hypothesize that if the aerobic-only energetic profile of steady state exercise can be used to estimate the energetics of non-steady state and intermittent exercise, then the converse also must be true. In fact, reasonable estimates of energy costs to work volumes or work rates can be demonstrated under steady state, non-steady state and intermittent conditions; the problem with the latter two is metabolic variability. Using resistance training as a model, estimates of both aerobic and anaerobic energy cost components, as opposed to one or the other, have reduced the overall energetic variability that appears inherent to brief, intense, intermittent exercise models.”
  2. Metabolic equivalents (METS) in exercise testing, exercise prescription, and evaluation of functional capacity - Jetté - 2009 - Clinical Cardiology - Wiley Online Library
  3. Modeling the Total Energy Costs of Resistance Exercise: a Work in Progress “We present an aerobic and anaerobic, exercise and recovery energy cost model of intermittent energy costs utilizing task (work, Joules) as opposed to rate (per minute) measurements. Low to moderate intensity steady state exercise energy costs are typically portrayed as the volumetric rate at which oxygen is consumed (VO2 L min–1), where a proportionate upward climbing linear relationship is profiled with an increasing power output; add to this the concept of the anaerobic threshold and energy costs increase with more intense aerobic exercise in disproportion to VO2 L min–1 measurements. As a per task function, intermittent work and recovery bouts contain a combined estimate of total costs, that is as kJ or kcal (not kJ.min-1 or kcal.min-1)”
  4. Steady state models provide an invalid estimate of intermittent resistance-exercise energy costs (PDF Download Available) “The prototype modeling of biological energy exchange invokes per minute measurements of oxygen uptake (l min-1), including exercise. While dedicated to steady rate power outputs, the oxygen uptake rate function model is now appropriated to intermittent exercise as well with resistance training serving as a primary example. Resistance training energy costs as described here are not properly portrayed by steady state oxygen uptake models - indeed, such application lacks validity. We instead suggest that the energy costs of brief, intense, intermittent exercise should be quantified in the context of a capacity estimate, where a bout of exercise and/or amount of work (J) completed is associated with a specific energy cost (kJoules). For resistance exercise, we propose linear models that measure work and energy bouts as an alternative to the steady state rate model.”
  5. Use of the doubly labeled water technique in humans during heavy sustained exercise
  6. Estimation of resistance exercise energy expenditure using accelerometry

Other (21)

  1. Estimation of energy expenditure, net carbohydrate utilization, and net fat oxidation and synthesis by indirect calorimetry: evaluation of errors with special reference to the detailed composition of fuels.
  2. Accuracy of 30-minute indirect calorimetry studies in predicting 24-hour energy expenditure in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients
  3. Estimation of Free-Living Energy Expenditure by Heart Rate and Movement Sensing: A Doubly-Labelled Water Study
  4. Greater than predicted decrease in resting energy expenditure and weight loss: results from a systematic review
  5. Doubly labelled water assessment of energy expenditure: principle, practice, and promise | SpringerLink
  6. A model of human muscle energy expenditure
  7. Measurement Methods for Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure: a Review: “In summary, there is no single best method that can assess all aspects of physical activity and energy expenditure. Therefore, as suggested by Troiano [94], the choice of assessment instrument depends on what aspect of physical activity the researcher wants to measure, characteristics of the target population, and whether the data will be used to describe groups or individuals.”
  8. ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN STRENGTH TRAINING: A CRITICAL APPROACH: “Comparing training protocols considering the ST variables separately seems to  be a  mistake, because it seems impossible to dissociate them. The use of work units (W = sets x  repetitions x load), together with the sum of measurements for the execution and the recovery  phase (EPOC), seems to be the most consistent approach to understand EE in ST, being that  EE increases with increasing W. A better understanding of the effect of the different variables  can therefore be achieved, possibly considering the absolute values observed (kcal or L of O2)  instead of relative values (kcal/min).”
  9. Special Considerations for Measuring Energy Expenditure with Doubly Labeled Water under Atypical Conditions
  10. Indirect calorimetry: an indispensable tool to understand and predict obesity: “By measuring oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production, indirect calorimetry provides minute-by-minute energy expenditure data that makes it the most valuable tool to distinguish the various components of energy expenditure, that is, sleeping and resting metabolic rate, thermic effect of food and the energy cost of activity. Importantly, such measures also provide information on energy substrate utilization.”
  11. Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities
  12. A New Whole Room Indirect Calorimeter for Measurement of the Energetics of Exercise
  13. An evaluation of energy expenditure estimation by three activity monitors: European Journal of Sport Science: Vol 13, No 6
  14. Assessing validity and reliability of Resting Metabolic Rate in six gas analysis systems
  15. Doubly Labeled Water Is a Validated and Verified Reference Standard in Nutrition Research
  16. Estimating free-living human energy expenditure: Practical aspects of the doubly labeled water method and its applications: “The DLW method was introduced for human use approximately 30 years ago [10]. This method provides information on TEE in free-living individuals over a period of 4-20 days. The principle of the method is as follows. Subjects receive a loading dose of water labeled with the stable 2H and 18O isotopes, and these isotopes mix with the hydrogen and oxygen in body water within a few hours. As energy is expended, CO2 and water are excreted. The CO2 is lost from the body only via the breath, while the water (including both 2H and 18O) is lost not only via the breath but also in urine, sweat, and through other means such as evaporation.”
  17. Evaluation of a portable device to measure daily energy expenditure in free-living adults
  18. Resting Energy Expenditure in Anorexia Nervosa: Measured versus Estimated
  19. Systematic review on use of a handheld indirect calorimeter to assess energy needs in adults and children
  20. The Maastricht Protocol for the Measurement of Body Composition and Energy Expenditure with Labeled Water - Westerterp - 1995 - Obesity - Wiley Online Library
  21. Validation of an indirect calorimeter using n-of-1 methodology

Adaptive Thermogenesis (AT)

Keywords: metabolic adaptation, metabolic slowing, energy homeostasis

Definition: “adaptive thermogenesis (...) is described as the decrease in [energy expenditure] (...) in response to a decreased energy intake - https://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v31/n2/full/0803523a.html?foxtrotcallback=true

  1. Adaptive Thermogenesis with Weight Loss in Humans
  2. Adaptive thermogenesis can make a difference in the ability of obese individuals to lose body weight
  3. Adaptive thermogenesis with weight loss in humans - Müller - 2013 - Obesity - Wiley Online Library
  4. Role Of Adaptive Thermogenesis In Unsuccessful Weight-Loss Intervention
  5. Does metabolic compensation explain the majority of less-than-expected weight loss in obese adults during a short-term severe diet and exercise intervention[quest]
  6. Adaptive thermogenesis in humans (Full text)
  7. Clinical significance of adaptive thermogenesis
  8. Long-term persistence of adaptive thermogenesis in subjects who have maintained a reduced body weight: “Declines in energy expenditure favoring the regain of lost weight persist well beyond the period of dynamic weight loss.”
  9. Metabolic adaptation to weight loss: implications for the athlete: “In response to weight loss, reductions in TDEE, BMR, EAT, NEAT, and TEF are observed. Due to adaptive thermogenesis, TDEE is lowered to an extent that exceeds the magnitude predicted by losses in body mass. Further, research indicates that adaptive thermogenesis and decreased energy expenditure persist after the active weight loss period, even in subjects who have maintained a reduced body weight for over a year [14,48]. These changes serve to minimize the energy deficit, attenuate further loss of body mass, and promote weight regain in weight-reduced subjects.”
  10. Metabolic adaptations to over--and underfeeding--still a matter of debate? - PubMed - NCBI
  11. Metabolic and Behavioral Compensations in Response to Caloric Restriction: Implications for the Maintenance of Weight Loss: “For the first time we show that in free-living conditions, [calorie restriction] results in a metabolic adaptation and a behavioral adaptation with decreased physical activity levels. These data also suggest potential mechanisms by which CR causes large inter-individual variability in the rates of weight loss and how exercise may influence weight loss and weight loss maintenance.”
  12. Metabolic and Behavioral Compensatory Responses to Exercise Interventions: Barriers to Weight Loss - King - 2007 - Obesity - Wiley Online Library: “The purpose of this review is to highlight the various metabolic and behavioral compensatory responses that could reduce the effectiveness of exercise and explain why some individuals experience a lower than expected weight loss. We propose that the extent and degree of compensation will vary between individuals. That is, some individuals will be predisposed to compensatory responses that render them resistant to the weight loss benefits theoretically associated with an exercise-induced increase in energy expenditure. Therefore, given the inter-individual variability in behavioral and metabolic compensatory responses, exercise prescriptions might be more effective if tailored to suit individuals.”
  13. Metabolic Slowing with Massive Weight Loss despite Preservation of Fat-Free Mass | The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism | Oxford Academic (full text) “Despite relative preservation of FFM, exercise did not prevent dramatic slowing of resting metabolism out of proportion to weight loss. This metabolic adaptation may persist during weight maintenance and predispose to weight regain unless high levels of physical activity or caloric restriction are maintained.”
  14. Models of energy homeostasis in response to maintenance of reduced body weight “Following initial weight loss (10%), resting (REE) and non-resting (NREE) EE were significantly below those predicted on the basis of the amount and composition of weight lost. Further reductions below predicted values of NREE but not REE occurred following an additional 10% weight loss. Changes in body weight, composition, and/or energy stores were significantly correlated with changes in EE.”
  15. Predicting metabolic adaptation, body weight change, and energy intake in humans
  16. Voluntary weight loss: systematic review of early phase body composition changes - Heymsfield - 2010 - Obesity Reviews - Wiley Online Library
  17. Predicting adult weight change in the real world: a systematic review and meta-analysis accounting for compensatory changes in energy intake or expenditure “Overfeeding studies indicate 96% less weight gain than expected if no compensation occurred. Dietary restriction and exercise studies may result in up to 12-44% and 55-64% less weight loss than expected, respectively, under an assumption of no behavioral compensation.”
  18. Evidence for the existence of adaptive thermogenesis during weight loss “the present results confirm the existence of adaptive thermogenesis and give objective measurements of this component during weight loss in obese men and women, while they also emphasize that in women this component seems to be essentially explained by the energy restriction.”
  19. Energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and body weight regulation: a study of metabolic adaptation to long-term weight change
  20. Effect of 6-mo. calorie restriction on biomarkers of longevity, metabolic adaptation and oxidative stress in overweight subjects “metabolic rate is reduced beyond the level expected for reduced metabolic body size. ”
  21. Underfeeding and body weight regulation in normal-weight young men “These results indicate that energy balance is regulated by adaptive variations in both energy intake and energy expenditure in normal-weight young men leading unrestricted lives but do not support the hypothesis that energy-wasting mechanisms contribute substantially to body energy regulation.”
  22. Changes in energy expenditure resulting from altered body weight “Maintenance of a reduced or elevated body weight is associated with compensatory changes in energy expenditure, which oppose the maintenance of a body weight that is different from the usual weight. These compensatory changes may account for the poor long-term efficacy of treatments for obesity.”
  23. Biology's response to dieting: the impetus for weight regain “The preponderance of evidence would suggest that the biological response to weight loss involves comprehensive, persistent, and redundant adaptations in energy homeostasis and that these adaptations underlie the high recidivism rate in obesity therapeutics. ”
  24. Behavioral compensatory adjustments to exercise training in overweight women
  25. Effect of calorie restriction on the free-living physical activity levels of nonobese humans: results of three randomized trials “CR-associated changes in AEE were variable but, generally, reduced the energy deficit, which would reduce the expected rate of weight loss. Accelerometry and recall did not consistently explain reduced AEE, suggesting that increased muscle efficiency and/or decreased fidgeting accounted for decreased AEE. Inaccuracy of accelerometry and recall also likely negatively affected sensitivity.”
  26. Macronutrient disposal during controlled overfeeding with glucose, fructose, sucrose, or fat in lean and obese women “Increased EE in response to overfeeding dissipated 7.9% of the energy excess with a variation in EE of <1.7% across overfeeding treatments (NS). ”
  27. Resistance to exercise-induced weight loss: compensatory behavioral adaptations
  28. Metabolic adaptation to caloric restriction and subsequent refeeding: the Minnesota Starvation Experiment revisited “CR also led to reductions in REE (-266 kcal/d), respiratory quotient (-15%), heart rate (-14%), blood pressure (-7%), creatinine clearance (-12%), energy cost of walking (-22%), activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) (-38%), and plasma leptin (-44%), insulin (-54%), adiponectin (-49%), 3,5,3'-tri-iodo-thyronine (T3) (-39%), and testosterone (-11%). AT was 108 kcal/d or 48% of the decrease in REE. ”
  29. A Missing Link in Body Weight Homeostasis: The Catabolic Signal of the Overfed State “Mammals regulate fat mass so that increases or reductions in adipose tissue mass activate responses that favor return to one’s previous weight. A reduction in fat mass activates a system that increases food intake and reduces energy expenditure; conversely, overfeeding and rapid adipose tissue expansion reduces food intake and increases energy expenditure. With the identification of leptin nearly two decades ago, the central circuit that defends against reductions in body fat was revealed. However, the systems that defend against rapid expansion of fat mass remain largely unknown. Here we review the physiology of the overfed state and evidence for a distinct regulatory system, which unlike the leptin-mediated system, we propose primarily measures a functional aspect of adipose tissue and not total mass per se.”

Thermic Effect of Food (TEF)

Keywords: diet-induced thermogenesis, thermogenic responses,

  1. The thermic effect of food and obesity: discrepant results and methodological variations
  2. The thermic effect of food and obesity: a critical review “From this review, we conclude that the reduction of TEF in obesity is related to the degree of insulin resistance, which may be influenced by a low level of sympathetic activity.”
  3. No evidence for metabolic adaptation in thermic effect of food by dietary protein
  4. Creatine Fuels the Thermic Effect of Feeding: Cell Metabolism
  5. A high-protein diet for reducing body fat: mechanisms and possible caveats+
  6. The influence of thermic effect of food on satiety “TEF was 261+/-59, 92+/-67 and 97+/-71 kJ over 7 h after the HP, HC and HF meals, respectively. The HP meal was the most thermogenic (P < 0.001) and it determined the highest sensation of fullness (P=0.002). There were no differences in the sensations and thermic effect between fat and carbohydrate meals. A significant relationship linked TEF to fullness sensation (r=0.41, P=0.025). Energy intake from the test meal was comparable after HP, HC and HF meals.”
  7. Diet induced thermogenesis “In conclusion, the main determinants of diet-induced thermogenesis are the energy content and the protein- and alcohol fraction of the diet. Protein plays a key role in body weight regulation through satiety related to diet-induced thermogenesis.”
  8. Differences in Diet Induced Thermogenesis and Satiety with Different Protein Loads
  9. Postprandial energy expenditure in whole-food and processed-food meals implications for daily energy expenditure “The goal was to determine if a particular PF meal has a greater thermodynamic efficiency than a comparable WF meal, thereby conferring a greater net-energy intake (...) Average energy expenditure for the [whole food] meal (137+/-14.1 kcal, 19.9% of meal energy) was significantly larger than for the [processed food] meal (73.1+/-10.2 kcal, 10.7% of meal energy).”
  10. The thermic effect of food is reduced in older adults
  11. Thermic effect of food, exercise, and total energy expenditure in active females “The high protein meal elicited a 30.39% and 98.15% greater increase in TEF compared to the low protein meal (p=.006) and fasted state (p<.001), respectively. The low protein meal resulted in 94.34% greater TEF compared to fasted (p<.001). Combined with exercise, high protein meal TEF was significantly greater compared to fasted (p=.010) but was not significantly greater than the low protein meal (p=.122). Significant differences were not found between the low protein meals with exercise compared to fasted conditions (p=.094).”
  12. The effect of fast eating on the thermic effect of food in young Japanese women “Fast eating may reduce the TEF, potentially because a decrease in mastication frequency decreases sympathetic nervous system activity.”
  13. Enhanced thermic effect of food after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery
  14. Thermic effect of food and sympathetic nervous system activity in humans
  15. Measuring the thermic effect of food
  16. The effect of resistance exercise on the thermic effect of food
  17. The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis, satiety and weight loss: a critical review “There is convincing evidence that a higher protein intake increases thermogenesis and satiety compared to diets of lower protein content. The weight of evidence also suggests that high protein meals lead to a reduced subsequent energy intake. Some evidence suggests that diets higher in protein result in an increased weight loss and fat loss as compared to diets lower in protein, but findings have not been consistent.”