A collection of 200+ keto and carbohydrate studies


By
: Adam Tzur (SCI-FIT facebook page)
Contributions by: Brad Dieter (Science Driven Nutrition), and Chad Macias (Institute for Human Kinetics)
Last updated: 25.07.2017


Summary


This study collection is a teaser for an upcoming review. We will examine the ketogenic diet for fat loss, muscle mass maintenance, disease management, and more.

 

Previous study collections

 

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Disclaimer: the information presented in this study collection is not medical advice, please consult your doctor before making drastic diet or lifestyle changes. This is particularly important if you have a disease that can be modified by keto (i.e. diabetes, epilepsy, cancer), or if you’re on medication: “patients on diabetes medication who use [a ketogenic diet] should be under close medical supervision”Yancy et al., 2005)

 

Weight loss (mostly reviews) (27)


  1. A Critique of Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Weight Reduction Regimens – A Review of Dr. Atkins’ Diet Revolution (Council on Foods and Nutrition, 1973)
  2. Popular Diets: A Scientific Review (Freedman et al., 2001)
  3. Atkins and other low-carbohydrate diets: hoax or an effective tool for weight loss? (Astrup et al., 2004)
  4. Reduced Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Diets Do Not Increase the Effects of Energy Restriction on Weight Loss and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Men and Women (Raatz et al., 2005)
  5. Very-low-carbohydrate diets and preservation of muscle mass (Manninen, 2006)
  6. Fat loss depends on energy deficit only, independently of the method for weight loss (Strasser et al., 2007)
  7. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat/low-calorie diets in the management of obesity and its comorbidities (Hession et al., 2008)
  8. Low-Carbohydrate Diets Promote a More Favorable Body Composition Than Low-Fat Diets (Volek et al., 2010)
  9. Systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials of the effects of low carbohydrate diets on cardiovascular risk factors (Santos et al., 2012)
  10. Effects of Low-Carbohydrate Diets Versus Low-Fat Diets on Metabolic Risk Factors: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials (Hu et al., 2012)
  11. Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. (Bueno et al., 2013)
  12. Low carbohydrate versus isoenergetic balanced diets for reducing weight and cardiovascular risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis (Naude et al., 2014)
  13. Ketogenic Diet for Obesity: Friend or Foe? (Paoli, 2014)
  14. Ketosis, ketogenic diet and food intake control: a complex relationship (Paoli et al., 2015)
  15. Dietary Intervention for Overweight and Obese Adults: Comparison of Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets. A Meta-Analysis (Sackner- Bernstein et al., 2015)
  16. Effect of low-fat diet interventions versus other diet interventions on long-term weight change in adults: a systematic review and meta- analysis (Tobias et al., 2015)
  17. Effects of low-carbohydrate diets v. low-fat diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (Mansoor et al., 2015)
  18. Effect of low-fat diet interventions versus other diet interventions on long-term weight change in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis (Tobias et al., 2015)
  19. Fat-Free Mass Changes During Ketogenic Diets and the Potential Role of Resistance Training (Tinsley and Willoughby, 2016)
  20. Evidence that supports the prescription of low-carbohydrate high-fat diets: a narrative review (Noakes and Windt, 2016)
  21. Effects of low-carbohydrate diets v. low-fat diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (Mansoor et al., 2016)
  22. Weight loss diet studies: we need help not hype (Freedhoff and Hall, 2016)
  23. International society of sports nutrition position stand: diets and body composition (Aragon et al., 2017)
  24. Obesity Energetics: Body Weight Regulation and the Effects of Diet Composition (Hall and Guo, 2017)
  25. A review of the carbohydrate-insulin model of obesity (Hall, 2017)
  26. Effects of diets on adipose tissue (Ezquerro et al., 2017)
  27. Systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary carbohydrate restriction in patients with type 2 diabetes (Snorgaard et al., 2017)

 

Muscle glycogen and body composition (15)


  1. Variation in Total Body Water with Muscle Glycogen Changes in Man (Olsson and Saltin, 1970)
  2. A Critique of Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Weight Reduction Regimens – A Review of Dr. Atkins’ Diet Revolution (Council on Foods and Nutrition, 1973)
  3. Composition of weight lost during short-term weight reduction. Metabolic responses of obese subjects to starvation and low-calorie ketogenic and nonketogenic diets (Yang and Itallie, 1976)(PDF)
  4. Comparison of carbohydrate-containing and carbohydrate-restricted hypocaloric diets in the treatment of obesity. Endurance and metabolic fuel homeostasis during strenuous exercise (Bogardus et al., 1981)
  5. Metabolic characteristics of skeletal muscle during detraining from competitive swimming (Costill et al., 1985)
  6. Glycogen concentration in human skeletal muscle: effect of prolonged insulin and glucose infusion (Hansen et al., 1999)
  7. Glycogen storage: illusions of easy weight loss, excessive weight regain, and distortions in estimates of body composition (Kreitzman et al., 1992)
  8. Loss of total body potassium during rapid weight loss does not depend on the decrease of potassium concentration in muscles. Different methods to evaluate body composition during a low energy diet (Krotkiewski et al., 2000)
  9. Effect of glycogen loading on skeletal muscle cross-sectional area and T2 relaxation time (Nygren et al., 2001)
  10. Atkins and other low-carbohydrate diets: hoax or an effective tool for weight loss? (Astrup et al., 2004)
  11. Optimising training adaptations by manipulating glycogen (Philp and Baar, 2008)
  12. Impact of body-composition methodology on the composition of weight loss and weight gain (Pourhassan et al., 2013)
  13. Resistance training promotes increase in intracellular hydration in men and women (Ribero et al., 2014)
  14. Effect of an Acute High Carbohydrate Diet on Body Composition Using DXA in Young Men (Rouillier et al., 2015)
  15. Manipulation of Muscle Creatine and Glycogen Changes DXA Estimates of Body Composition (Bone et al., 2016)

 

Weight gain and overfeeding (8)


These studies deal with CICO, which is the main counter hypothesis to the insulin hypothesis. More info on CICO and body weight regulation here: Collection of 450+ weight loss studies

  1. The effect of 6 weeks of overfeeding on the body weight, body composition, and energy metabolism of young men (Norgan and Durnin, 1980)
  2. Effects of isoenergetic overfeeding of either carbohydrate or fat in young men (Lammert et al., 2000)
  3. “fat storage during overfeeding of isoenergetic amounts of diets rich in carbohydrate or in fat was not significantly different”
  4. Effect of Dietary Protein Content on Weight Gain, Energy Expenditure, and Body Composition During Overeating: A Randomized Controlled Trial (Bray et al., 2012)
  5. Serum sex steroids and steroidogenesis-related enzyme expression in skeletal muscle during experimental weight gain in men (Sato et al., 2014)
  6. Effects of weight gain induced by controlled overfeeding on physical activity (Apolzan et al., 2014)
  7. Effect of protein overfeeding on energy expenditure measured in a metabolic chamber (Bray et al., 2015)
  8. Adiposity among 132 479 UK Biobank participants; contribution of sugar intake vs other macronutrients (Anderson et al., 2017)

 

RCTs: Keto / low-carb vs. regular or low-fat diet (30)


  1. Protein sparing during treatment of obesity: ketogenic versus nonketogenic very low calorie diet (Vazquez and Adibi, 1992)
  2. The effects of a high-protein, low-fat, ketogenic diet on adolescents with morbid obesity: body composition, blood chemistries, and sleep abnormalities (Willi et al., 1998)
  3. Body composition and hormonal responses to a carbohydrate-restricted diet (Volek et al., 2002)
  4. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women (Volek et al., 2004)
  5. Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone Diets for Weight Loss and Heart Disease Risk Reduction (Dansinger et al., 2005)
  6. Ketogenic low-carbohydrate diets have no metabolic advantage over nonketogenic low-carbohydrate diets (Johnston et al., 2006)
  7. Dietary protein and exercise have additive effects on body composition during weight loss in adult women (Layman et al., 2005)
  8. Effects of a high-protein ketogenic diet on hunger, appetite, and weight loss in obese men feeding ad libitum (Johnstone et al., 2008)
  9. Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates (Sacks et al., 2009)
  10. Resistance training in overweight women on a ketogenic diet conserved lean body mass while reducing body fat (Jabekk et al., 2010)
  11. Effects of dietary composition on energy expenditure during weight-loss maintenance (Ebbeling et al., 2012)
  12. Preservation of Fat-Free Mass After Two Distinct Weight Loss Diets with and without Progressive Resistance Exercise (Wood et al., 2012)
  13. Ketogenic diet does not affect strength performance in elite artistic gymnasts (Paoli et al., 2012)
  14. Consuming a hypocaloric high fat low carbohydrate diet for 12 weeks lowers C-reactive protein, and raises serum adiponectin and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in obese subjects (Ruth et al., 2013)
  15. The effect of weight loss by ketogenic diet on the body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors and cytokines of Taekwondo athletes (Rhyu and Cho, 2014)
  16. The effects of ketogenic dieting on skeletal muscle and fat mass (Rauch et al., 2014) (I think this is the Wilson et al., 2017 study)
  17. Effects of Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets: A Randomized Trial (Bazzano et al., 2014)
  18. Calorie for calorie, dietary fat restriction results in more body fat loss than carbohydrate restriction in people with obesity (Hall et al., 2015)
  19. Energy expenditure and body composition changes after an isocaloric ketogenic diet in overweight and obese men (Hall et al., 2016)
  20. Effects of Short-Term Carbohydrate Restrictive and Conventional Hypoenergetic Diets and Resistance Training on Strength Gains and Muscle Thickness (Meirelles and Gomes, 2016)
  21. Short-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet interventional weight loss program versus hypocaloric diet in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (Goday et al., 2016)
  22. Adherence to low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets in relation to weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors (Hu et al., 2016)
  23. Visceral adiposity and metabolic syndrome after very high–fat and low-fat isocaloric diets: a randomized controlled trial (Veum et al., 2016) (They ate 56.1g carbs, on average. This might not be enough for keto?)
  24. Very-low-calorie ketogenic diet with aminoacid supplement versus very low restricted-calorie diet for preserving muscle mass during weight loss: a pilot double-blind study (Merra et al., 2016)
  25. Weight loss on low-fat vs. low-carbohydrate diets by insulin resistance status among overweight adults and adults with obesity: A randomized pilot trial (Gardner et al., 2016)
  26. The effect of an 8-week low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) diet in sub-elite Olympic weightlifters and powerlifters on strength, body composition, mental state and adherence: a pilot case-study (Chatterton et al., 2017)
  27. A Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet Combined with 6-Weeks of Crossfit Training Improves Body Composition and Performance (Gregory et al., 2017)
  28. Impact of a 6-week non-energy-restricted ketogenic diet on physical fitness, body composition and biochemical parameters in healthy adults (Urbain et al., 2017)
  29. The Effects of Ketogenic Dieting on Body Composition, Strength, Power, and Hormonal Profiles in Resistance Training Males (Wilson et al., 2017)
  30. Efficacy and safety of very-low-calorie ketogenic diet: a double blind randomized crossover study (Colica et al., 2017)

 

Carbohydrates, keto, and exercise performance (35)


  1. Capacity for Moderate Exercise in Obese Subjects after Adaptation to a Hypocaloric, Ketogenic Diet (Phinney et al., 1980)
  2. Comparison of carbohydrate-containing and carbohydrate-restricted hypocaloric diets in the treatment of obesity. Endurance and metabolic fuel homeostasis during strenuous exercise (Bogardus et al., 1981)
  3. The human metabolic response to chronic ketosis without caloric restriction: Preservation of submaximal exercise capability with reduced carbohydrate oxidation (Phinney et al., 1983)
  4. Low-fat diet alters intramuscular substrates and reduces lipolysis and fat oxidation during exercise (Coyle et al., 2001)
  5. Fat utilization during exercise: adaptation to a fat-rich diet increases utilization of plasma fatty acids and very low density lipoprotein-triacylglycerol in humans (Helge et al., 2001)
  6. Ketogenic diets and physical performance (Phinney, 2004)
  7. Low-carbohydrate nutrition and metabolism (Westman et al., 2007)
  8. Carbohydrates and exercise performance in non-fasted athletes: A systematic review of studies mimicking real-life (Colombani et al., 2013)
  9. The use of carbohydrates during exercise as an ergogenic aid (Cermak and van Loon, 2013)
  10. Acute nutritional ketosis: implications for exercise performance and metabolism (Cox and Clarke, 2014)
  11. Glycogen availability and skeletal muscle adaptations with endurance and resistance exercise (Knuiman et al., 2015)
  12. Re-Examining High-Fat Diets for Sports Performance: Did We Call the ‘Nail in the Coffin’ Too Soon? (Burke, 2015)
  13. Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sport Performance (Williams and Rollo, 2015)
  14. Nutritional Ketosis Alters Fuel Preference and Thereby Endurance Performance in Athletes (Cox et al., 2016)
  15. Carbohydrate intake and resistance-based exercise: are current recommendations reflective of actual need (Escobar et al., 2016)
  16. Gluconeogenesis during endurance exercise in cyclists habituated to a long-term low carbohydrate high-fat diet (Webster et al., 2016)
  17. Effects of acute carbohydrate ingestion on anaerobic exercise performance (Krings et al., 2016)
  18. A systematic review and meta-analysis of carbohydrate benefits associated with randomized controlled competition-based performance trials (Pöchmüller et al., 2016)
  19. Fructose-Glucose Composite Carbohydrates and Endurance Performance: Critical Review and Future Perspectives (Rowlands et al., 2015)
  20. Does Carbohydrate Intake During Endurance Running Improve Performance? A Critical Review (Wilson, 2016)
  21. The Effect of a Moderately Low and High Carbohydrate Intake on Crossfit Performance (Escobar et al., 2016)
  22. Differential in Maximal Aerobic Capacity by Sex in Collegiate Endurance Athletes Consuming a Marginally Low Carbohydrate Diet (Baranauskas et al., 2017)
  23. A high carbohydrate diet remains the evidence based choice for elite athletes to optimise performance (Helge, 2017)
  24. A Case for and Against Ketogenic Diets in Athletes (Kavalek et al., 2017)
  25. Low-Carbohydrate-High-Fat Diet: Can it Help Exercise Performance? (Chang et al., 2017)
  26. Glucose Plus Fructose Ingestion for Post‐Exercise Recovery—Greater than the Sum  (Gonzalez et al., 2017)
  27. Effect of pre-exercise carbohydrate diets with high vs low glycemic index on exercise performance: a meta-analysis (Heung-Sang Wong et al., 2017)
  28. A pilot case study on the impact of a self-prescribed ketogenic diet on biochemical parameters and running performance in healthy and physically active individuals (Klement et al., 2013)
  29. The Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Exercise Metabolism and Physical Performance in Off-Road Cyclists (Zajac et al., 2014)
  30. Metabolic characteristics of keto-adapted ultra-endurance runners (Volek et al., 2016)
  31. Ketone Bodies and Exercise Performance: The Next Magic Bullet or Merely Hype? (Philippe et al., 2017)
  32. Low carbohydrate, high fat diet impairs exercise economy and negates the performance benefit from intensified training in elite race walkers (Burke et al., 2017)
  33. Ketogenic diet benefits body composition and well-being but not performance in a pilot case study of New Zealand endurance athletes (Zinn et al., 2017)
  34. Ketones and Human Performance (Scott and Deuster, 2017)
  35. No Superior Adaptations to Carbohydrate Periodization in Elite Endurance Athletes (Gejl et al., 2017)

 

 

Disease management (2)


  1. Clinical Aspects of the Ketogenic Diet (Hartman and Vining, 2007)
  2. The Ketogenic Diet: One Decade Later (Freeman et al., 2007)

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) (4)

  1. Improvement of gastroesophageal reflux disease after initiation of a low-carbohydrate diet: five brief case reports (Yancy et al., 2001)
  2. A Very Low-Carbohydrate Diet Improves Gastroesophageal Reflux and Its Symptoms (Austin et al., 2006)
  3. Systematic review: the effects of conservative and surgical treatment for obesity on gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (De Groot et al., 2009)
  4. Dietary carbohydrate intake, insulin resistance and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a pilot study in European- and African-American obese women (Pointer et al., 2016)

Diabetes (11)

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“The change to a [low carb diet] in patients taking medications for diabetes or hypertension should be made under supervision by clinicians. (…) Frequently, a reduction in medication will be required to avoid hypoglycemia and hypotension due to overmedication.“Westman et al., 2007

 

“Because of the effectiveness of carbohydrate restriction on glycemic control, there is a danger of hypoglycemia for those patients on glucose-lowering medication. It is recommended that medication be reduced in advance of initiating a low-carbohydrate diet.”Feinman et al., 2015

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  1. A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity (Samaha et al., 2003)
  2. Effect of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Appetite, Blood Glucose Levels, and Insulin Resistance in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes (Boden et al., 2005)
  3. A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet to treat type 2 diabetes (Yancy et al., 2005)
  4. Control of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes without weight loss by modification of diet composition (Gannon and Nuttall, 2006)
  5. Beneficial effects of ketogenic diet in obese diabetic subjects (Dashti et al., 2007)
  6. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (Westman et al., 2008)
  7. Effect of low-calorie versus low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet in type 2 diabetes (Hussain et al., 2012)
  8. A critical review of low-carbohydrate diets in people with Type 2 diabetes (van Wyk et al., 2013)
  9. Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: critical review and evidence base (Feinman et al., 2015)
  10. An Online Intervention Comparing a Very Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations Versus a Plate Method Diet in Overweight Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial (Saslow et al., 2017)
  11. Effects of Ketogenic Diets on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Evidence from Animal and Human Studies (Kosinski and Jornayvaz, 2017)

Cancer (26)

This section is mostly based on a collection of links put together by Chad Macias of the Institute For Human Kinetics Lab

  1. The AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Is Involved in the Regulation of Ketone Body Production by Astrocytes (Blázquez et al., 1999)
  2. The calorically restricted ketogenic diet, an effective alternative therapy for malignant brain cancer (Zhou et al., 2007)
  3. Ketones and lactate “fuel” tumor growth and metastasis (Bonuccelli et al., 2010)
  4. Ketone body utilization drives tumor growth and metastasis (Martinez-Outschoorn et al., 2012):
  5. Ketones and lactate increase cancer cell “stemness”, driving recurrence, metastasis and poor clinical outcome in breast cancer (Martinez-Outschoorn et al., 2011)
  6. Energy transfer in “parasitic” cancer metabolism (Martinez-Outschoorn et al., 2011)
  7. The autophagic tumor stroma model of cancer (Pavlides et al., 2010)
  8. High fat diet increases melanoma cell growth in the bone marrow by inducing osteopontin and interleukin 6 (Chen et al., 2016)
  9. Using the “reverse Warburg effect” to identify high-risk breast cancer patients (Witkiewicz et al., 2012)
  10. Hyperactivation of oxidative mitochondrial metabolism in epithelial cancer cells in situ (Whitaker-Menezes et al., 2011)
  11. Pyruvate kinase expression (PKM1 and PKM2) in cancer-associated fibroblasts drives stromal nutrient production and tumor growth (Chiavarina et al., 2011)
  12. Glutamine fuels a vicious cycle of autophagy in the tumor stroma and oxidative mitochondrial metabolism in epithelial cancer cells (Ko et al., 2011)
  13. Mitochondrial oxidative stress in cancer-associated fibroblasts drives lactate production, promoting breast cancer tumor growth (Balliet et al., 2011)
  14. Adipocytes promote ovarian cancer metastasis and provide energy for rapid tumor growth (Nieman et al., 2011)
  15. Evidence for a stromal-epithelial “lactate shuttle” in human tumors (Whitaker-Menezes et al., 2011)
  16. Establishing a relationship between prolactin and altered fatty acid β-Oxidation via carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 in breast cancer cells (Linher-Melville et al., 2011)
  17. Lipid Catabolism via CPT1 as a Therapeutic Target for Prostate Cancer (Schlaepfer et al., 2014)
  18. Fatty acid oxidation is required for the respiration and proliferation of malignant glioma cells (Lin et al., 2016)
  19. Is there a role for carbohydrate restriction in the treatment and prevention of cancer? (Klement and Kämmerer, 2011)
  20. Role of ketogenic metabolic therapy in malignant glioma: A systematic review (Winter et al., 2017)
  21. A Nutritional Perspective of Ketogenic Diet in Cancer: A Narrative Review (Oliveira et al., 2017)
  22. Beneficial effects of ketogenic diets for cancer patients: a realist review with focus on evidence and confirmation (Klement, 2017)
  23. Systematic review: isocaloric ketogenic dietary regimes for cancer patients (Erickson et al., 2017)
  24. Assessing the Role of the Ketogenic Diet as a Metabolic Therapy in Cancer: Is it Evidence Based? (Macias and Sharpe, 2017)
  25. Pleiotropic effects of nutritional ketosis: Conceptual framework for keto-adaptation as a breast cancer therapy (Hyde et al., 2017)
  26. Tumor Metabolism, the Ketogenic Diet and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy In Systemic Metastatic Cancer: Is the evidence lacking? (Macias and Sharpe, 2017)

 

Epilepsy (23)

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“The KD is absolutely contraindicated in children with pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, where administration of the diet may be lethal. We have never used the diet in patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders or organic acidurias like 3-hydroxy-methyl glutaryl Co-A lyase deficiency”Freeman et al., 2006

 

“Five children (10%) experienced serious adverse events (AE) after initiation of the diet.”Ballaban-Gil et al., 1998

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  1. The Ketogenic Diet Revisited: Back to the Future (Nordli and De Vivo, 1997)
  2. A Multicenter Study of the Efficacy of the Ketogenic Diet (Vining et al., 1998)
  3. Complications of the Ketogenic Diet (Ballaban-Gil et al., 1998)
  4. Clinical efficacy of the ketogenic diet (Vining, 1999)
  5. Ketogenic diet for the treatment of refractory epilepsy in children: A systematic review of efficacy (Lefevre and Aronson, 2000)
  6. Fasting versus Gradual Initiation of the Ketogenic Diet: A Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial of Efficacy (Bergqvist et al., 2005)
  7. Efficacy of the Ketogenic Diet as a Treatment Option for Epilepsy: Meta-analysis (Henderson et al., 2006)
  8. The ketogenic diet: From molecular mechanisms to clinical effects (Freeman et al., 2006)
  9. The Neuropharmacology of the Ketogenic Diet (Hartman et al., 2007)
  10. The ketogenic diet for the treatment of childhood epilepsy: a randomised controlled trial (Neal et al., 2008)
  11. Ketogenic diet for treatment of epilepsy (Rogovik and Goldman, 2010)
  12. The ketogenic diet: metabolic influences on brain excitability and epilepsy (Lutas and Yellen, 2013)
  13. Is Ketogenic Diet Truly Effective in Mitochondrial Epilepsy? (Finsterer and Kothari et al., 2014)
  14. Dietary and Medication Adjustments to Improve Seizure Control in Patients Treated With the Ketogenic Diet (Selter et al., 2014)
  15. Ketogenic diet in adolescents and adults with epilepsy (Nei et al., 2014)
  16. Ketogenic diet and other dietary treatments for epilepsy (Martin et al., 2016)
  17. A randomized controlled trial of the ketogenic diet in refractory childhood epilepsy (Lambrechts et al., 2016)
  18. Recommendations for the clinical management of children with refractory epilepsy receiving the ketogenic diet (Alberti et al., 2016)
  19. Impact of a Modified Ketogenic Diet on Seizure Activity, Biochemical Markers, Anthropometrics and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Adults with Epilepsy (Schuchmann et al., 2017)
  20. How does the ketogenic diet induce anti-seizure effects? (Rho, 2017)
  21. Complications During Ketogenic Diet Initiation: Prevalence, Treatment, and Influence on Seizure Outcomes (Lin et al., 2017)
  22. Efficacy of ketogenic diet in resistant myoclono-astatic epilepsy: A french multicenter retrospective study (de Saint-Martin et al., 2017)
  23. The role for ketogenic diets in epilepsy and status epilepticus in adults (Williams et al., 2017)

 

Misc (metabolism, health, appetite, etc.) (21)


  1. Ketones: metabolism’s ugly duckling (VanItallie and Nufert, 2003)
  2. Long-term effects of a ketogenic diet in obese patients (Dashti et al., 2004)
  3. The effects of insulin on the central nervous system–focus on appetite regulation (Pliquett et al., 2006)
  4. Neuroprotective and disease-modifying effects of the ketogenic diet (Gasior et al., 2006)
  5. Low-carbohydrate nutrition and metabolism (Westman et al., 2007)
  6. Vascular effects of a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet (Foo et al., 2009)
  7. Inborn errors of ketogenesis and ketone body utilization (Sass, 2012)
  8. Do ketogenic diets really suppress appetite? A systematic review and meta-analysis (Gibson et al., 2014)
  9. Danger in the Pipeline for the Ketogenic Diet? (Kossoff et al., 2014)
  10. The impact of the ketogenic diet on arterial morphology and endothelial function in children and young adults with epilepsy: A case–control study (Coppola et al., 2014)
  11. New Insights into the Interaction of Carbohydrate and Fat Metabolism During Exercise (Spriet et al., 2014)
  12. The Flexibility of Ectopic Lipids (Loher et al., 2016)
  13. Carbohydrates and Endothelial Function: Is a Low-Carbohydrate Diet or a Low-Glycemic Index Diet Favourable for Vascular Health? (Jovanovski et al., 2015)
  14. Monitoring for compliance with a ketogenic diet: what is the best time of day to test for urinary ketosis (Urbain and Bertz, 2016)
  15. Timeline of changes in appetite during weight loss with a ketogenic diet (Nymo et al., 2017)
  16. Ketogenic diet in migraine: rationale, findings and perspectives (Barbanti et al., 2017)
  17. The Current Status of the Ketogenic Diet in Psychiatry (Bostock et al., 2017)
  18. Effects of Ketogenic Diets on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Evidence from Animal and Human Studies (Kosinski and Jornayvaz, 2017)
  19. Triglyceride metabolism in exercising muscle (Watt and Cheng, 2017)
  20. THE NEUROPROTECTIVE PROPERTIES OF CALORIE RESTRICTION, THE KETOGENIC DIET, AND KETONE BODIES (Maalouf et al., 2009)
  21. A Ketogenic Diet Favorably Affects Serum Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Disease in Normal-Weight Men (Sharman et al., 2002)

Adherence (4)

  1. Effect of 6-month adherence to a very low carbohydrate diet program (Westman et al., 2002)
  2. Adherence and success in long-term weight loss diets: the dietary intervention randomized controlled trial (DIRECT) (Greenberg et al., 2009)
  3. Attenuating the Biologic Drive for Weight Regain Following Weight Loss: Must What Goes Down Always Go Back Up? (Melby et al., 2017)
  4. Is There an Optimal Diet for Weight Management and Metabolic Health? (Thom and Lean, 2017)

 

 

Uncategorized articles (8)


  1. http://www.stephanguyenet.com/meta-analysis-impact-of-carbohydrate-vs-fat-calories-on-energy-expenditure-and-body-fatness/
  2. http://ketogenic.com/uncategorized/ketogenic-dieting-body-composition-beyond-abstract/
  3. Insufficient ketone body use is the cause of ketotic hypoglycemia in one of a pair of homozygotic twins. – PubMed – NCBI
  4. Carbs vs. fat research update
  5. Effect of classic ketogenic diet treatment on lipoprotein subfractions in children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy – pdf
  6. A Ketone Ester Drink Increases Postexercise Muscle Glycogen Synthesis in Humans. – PubMed – NCBI
  7. Metabolism of ketone bodies during exercise and training: physiological basis for exogenous supplementation – Evans – 2016
  8. Intake of a Ketone Ester drink during Recovery from Exercise promotes mTORC1 signalling but not Glycogen Resynthesis in Human Muscle.