Total studies = 59
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Rapid weight loss (2)

  1. Rapid Weight Loss in Sports with Weight Classes (Khodaee et al., 2015) (FT)
  2. Weight loss in combat sports: physiological, psychological and performance effects (Franchini et al., 2012)


Contest prep & case studies (8)

  1. Recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: Resistance and cardiovascular training (Helms et al., 2014b)
  2. Evidence-based recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: nutrition and supplementation (Helms et al., 2014a)
  3. Precontest strategies of a male bodybuilder (Steen, 1991) (not cited)
  4. Natural bodybuilding competition preparation and recovery: a 12-month case study (Rossow et al., 2013)
  5. Case study: Natural bodybuilding contest preparation (Kistler et al., 2014)
  6. A nutrition and conditioning intervention for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: case study (Robinson et al., 2015)
  7. Nutrition Intervention for an International-Standard Female Football Player Introduction and Background (Robinson et al., 2014)
  8. Dietary Intake, Body Composition, and Menstrual Cycle Changes during Competition Preparation and Recovery in a Drug-Free Figure Competitor: A Case Study (Halliday et al., 2016)


Protein (1)

  1. Considerations for protein intake in managing weight loss in athletes (Murphy et al., 2014)


Bulking (3)

  1. Effect of Dietary Protein Content on Weight Gain, Energy Expenditure, and Body Composition During Overeating: A Randomized Controlled Trial (Bray et al., 2012)
  2. Long-term effect of nutritional counselling on desired gain in body mass and lean body mass in elite athletes (Garthe et al., 2011a)
  3. Effect of nutritional intervention on body composition and performance in elite athletes (Garthe et al., 2012)(FT)


Weight loss, reviews, misc. (19)

  1. Role of protein and amino acids in promoting lean mass accretion with resistance exercise and attenuating lean mass loss during energy deficit in humans (Churchward-Venne et al., 2013)
  2. Voluntary weight loss: systematic review of early phase body composition changes (Heymsfield et al., 2010)
  3. Effect of Calorie Restriction with or without Exercise on Body Composition and Fat Distribution (Redman et al., 2007)
  4. Effects of high-protein diets on fat-free mass and muscle protein synthesis following weight loss: a randomized controlled trial (Pasiakos et al., 2013)
  5. Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body composition (Sundgot-Borgen and Garthe, 2011)
  6. The Role of Diet and Exercise for the Maintenance of Fat-Free Mass and Resting Metabolic Rate During Weight Loss (Stiegler and Cunliffe 2006)
  7. The effects of exercise training in addition to energy restriction on functional capacities and body composition in obese adults during weight loss: a systematic review (Miller et al., 2013)
  8. Weight Management for Athletes and Active Individuals: A Brief Review (Manore et al., 2015)
  9. Effects of energy-restricted high-protein, low-fat compared with standard-protein, low-fat diets: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (Wycherley et al., 2012)
  10. Effects of dietary protein intake on body composition changes after weight loss in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis (Kim et al., 2016)
  11. Changes in fat-free mass during significant weight loss: a systematic review (Chaston et al., 2007)
  12. A systematic review of dietary protein during caloric restriction in resistance trained lean athletes: a case for higher intakes (Helms et al., 2014)
  13. Effects of testosterone treatment on body fat and lean mass in obese men on a hypocaloric diet: a randomised controlled trial (Tang Fui et al., 2016)
  14. Effect of Two-Year Caloric Restriction on Bone Metabolism and Bone Mineral Density in Non-Obese Younger Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial (Villareal et al., 2016)
  15. A Brief Review of Higher Dietary Protein Diets in Weight Loss: A Focus on Athletes (Phillips, 2014)
  16. Metabolic adaptation to weight loss: implications for the athlete (Trexler et al., 2014)
  17. Fat-free mass is maintained in women following a moderate diet and exercise program (Marks et al., 1995)
  18. A systematic review of the separate and combined effects of energy restriction and exercise on fat-free mass in middle-aged and older adults: implications for sarcopenic obesity (Weinheimer et al., 2010)
  19. Rapid weight loss in the context of Ramadan observance: recommendations for judokas  (Aloui et al., 2016)


Gaining in a deficit

Novice and trained lifters (8)

  1. Effect of two different weight-loss rates on body composition and strength and power-related performance in elite athletes (Garthe et al., 2011) (FT)
  2. Increasing Protein Distribution Has No Effect on Changes in Lean Mass During a Rugby Preseason (MacKenzie-Shalders et al., 2016)
  3. The Effects of Self-selection for Frequency of Training in a Winter Conditioning Program for Football (Hoffman et al., 1990)
  4. Body composition and power performance improved after weight reduction in male athletes without hampering hormonal balance (Huovinen et al., 2015)
  5. Body composition changes in female bodybuilders during preparation for competition (van der Ploeg et al., 2001) (FT)
  6. Effect of Whey Protein in Conjunction with a Caloric-Restricted Diet and Resistance Training (Dudgeon et al., 2015)
  7. The effects of two equal-volume training protocols upon strength, body composition and salivary hormones in male rugby union players (Crewther et al., 2016)
  8. The Effects of Intensive Weight Reduction on Body Composition and Serum Hormones in Female Fitness Competitors (Hulmi et al., 2016)


Sedentary and untrained subjects (11)

  1. Effects of Aerobic Training, Resistance Training, or Both on Percentage Body Fat and Cardiometabolic Risk Markers in Obese Adolescents: The Healthy Eating Aerobic and Resistance Training in Youth Randomized Clinical Trial (Sigal et al., 2014)
  2. Effects of strength training on total and regional body composition in older men (Treuth et al., 1994)
  3. Muscle hypertrophy with large-scale weight loss and resistance training (Donnelly et al., 1993)
  4. Effect of a hypocaloric diet, increased protein intake and resistance training on lean mass gains and fat mass loss in overweight police officers (Demling and DeSanti, 2000)
  5. Effects of 8 weeks equal-volume resistance training with different workout frequency on maximal strength, endurance and body composition (Arazi and Asadi, 2011)
  6. Regional body composition changes in women after 6 months of periodized physical training (Nindl et al., 2000)
  7. Body composition and strength changes in women with milk and resistance exercise (Josse et al., 2010)
  8. Impact of milk consumption and resistance training on body composition of female athletes (Josse and Phillips, 2012)
  9. Effects of Short-Term Carbohydrate Restrictive and Conventional Hypoenergetic Diets and Resistance Training on Strength Gains and Muscle Thickness (Meirelles and Gomes, 2016)
  10. Higher compared with lower dietary protein during an energy deficit combined with intense exercise promotes greater lean mass gain and fat mass loss (Longland et al., 2016)
  11. Effect of a high protein diet and/or resistance exercise on the preservation of fat free mass during weight loss in overweight and obese older adults: a randomized controlled trial (Verreijen et al., 2017)


Anorexia, contest prep, disordered eating (7)

  1. Body fat redistribution after weight gain in women with anorexia nervosa (Mayer et al., 2005)
  2. Body fat distribution measured with CT: correlations in healthy subjects, patients with anorexia nervosa, and patients with Cushing syndrome (Mayo-Smith, 1989).


Study analysis

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