Cold Water Immersion – A Collection of 240+ Studies

Authors
Adam Tzur (Facebook, Twitter)

Studies: 243
Published: July 19, 2018
Updated: 
July 20, 2018 (added Broatch et al., 2018)


Cold Water Immersion (CWI) Sci-fit athletic performance and recovery

Plain Language Summary

What is Cold Water Immersion (CWI)?

An athlete is placed in an ice bath with a temperature typically between 5-15 °C (41-59 °F). The goal is to reduce body temperature, which is supposed to alleviate muscle damage and inflammation. This could improve recovery and possibly exercise performance.

Pre-cooling for performance

Cold water immersion before physical activity could improve athletic performance and fatigue. But this finding isn’t consistent across all studies. The effect seems to be greater when training in the heat.

Short term vs. long-term

Cold water immersion after exercise could improve recovery by reducing fatigue, muscle soreness (DOMS), exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), and inflammation. This could lead to improved performance recovery in the short-term, perhaps ideal for competitions.

In the long-term, cold water immersion might impair hypertrophy as well other training-related adaptations.

Preliminary evidence suggests that [Cold Water Immersion] may blunt resistance signalling pathways following a single exercise session, as well as attenuate key long-term resistance training adaptations such as strength and muscle mass.

- Broatch et al., 2018

Treating Overheating

Cold water immersion can be used to treat overheating from exercise (exertional hyperthermia or exercise-induced hyperthermia).

Reviews and Meta-Analyses

StudyYearLinkFirst Author
The Influence of Post-Exercise Cold-Water Immersion on Adaptive Responses to Exercise: A Review of the Literature2018LinkBroatch JR
Ergogenic effects of precooling with cold water immersion and ice ingestion: A meta-analysis.2018LinkChoo HC
Effects of Cold Water Immersion and Contrast Water Therapy for Recovery From Team Sport: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.2017LinkHiggins TR
Fatigue and Recovery in Rugby: A Review.2017LinkTavares F
Can Water Temperature and Immersion Time Influence the Effect of Cold Water Immersion on Muscle Soreness? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.2016LinkMachado AF
Optimizing Cold Water Immersion for Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia: A Meta-analysis.2015LinkZhang Y
The Effect of Post-Exercise Cryotherapy on Recovery Characteristics: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis2015LinkHohenauer E
Contrast water therapy and exercise induced muscle damage: a systematic review and meta-analysis.2013LinkBieuzen F
Cooling and performance recovery of trained athletes: a meta-analytical review.2013LinkPoppendieck W
Water immersion recovery for athletes: effect on exercise performance and practical recommendations.2013LinkVersey NG
Cold-water immersion (cryotherapy) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise.2012LinkBleakley C
Pre-cooling for endurance exercise performance in the heat: a systematic review.2012LinkJones PR
What is the biochemical and physiological rationale for using cold-water immersion in sports recovery? A systematic review.2010LinkBleakley CM
Acute whole-body cooling for exercise-induced hyperthermia: a systematic review.2009LinkMcDermott BP
Using recovery modalities between training sessions in elite athletes: does it help?2006LinkBarnett A

Strength & Hypertrophy

StudyYearLinkFirst Author
The Influence of Post-Exercise Cold-Water Immersion on Adaptive Responses to Exercise: A Review of the Literature2018LinkBroatch JR
Impact of resistance exercise on ribosome biogenesis is acutely regulated by post-exercise recovery strategies.2016LinkFigueiredo VC
Importance of Standardized DXA Protocol for Assessing Physique Changes in Athletes.2016LinkNana A
Post-exercise cold water immersion attenuates acute anabolic signalling and long-term adaptations in muscle to strength training.2015LinkRoberts LA
Strength training adaptations after cold-water immersion.2014LinkFröhlich M
Effects on handgrip strength due to arm immersion in a 10 degree C water bath.1978LinkCoppin EG

Athletic Performance

StudyYearLinkFirst Author
Ergogenic effects of precooling with cold water immersion and ice ingestion: A meta-analysis.2018LinkChoo HC
A Comparison of Mixed-Method Cooling Interventions on Preloaded Running Performance in the Heat.2017LinkStevens CJ
Cold-water immersion following sprint interval training does not alter endurance signaling pathways or training adaptations in human skeletal muscle.2017LinkBroatch JR
The Efficacy of Repeated Cold Water Immersion on Recovery Following a Simulated Rugby Union Protocol2017LinkBarber
Dosages of cold-water immersion post exercise on functional and clinical responses: a randomized controlled trial.2017LinkMachado AF
Running performance in the heat is improved by similar magnitude with pre-exercise cold-water immersion and mid-exercise facial water spray.2017LinkStevens CJ
Use of Cold-Water Immersion to Reduce Muscle Damage and Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness and Preserve Muscle Power in Jiu-Jitsu Athletes.2016LinkFonseca LB
Post-exercise cold water immersion does not alter high intensity interval training-induced exercise performance and Hsp72 responses, but enhances mitochondrial markers.2016LinkAguiar PF
Cold Water Immersion is Acutely Detrimental but Increases Performance Post-12 h in Rugby Players.2016LinkGarcia CA
Cold-water immersion alters muscle recruitment and balance of basketball players during vertical jump landing.2016LinkMacedo Cde S
Effects of Cold Water Immersion on Muscle Oxygenation During Repeated Bouts of Fatiguing Exercise: A Randomized Controlled Study.2016LinkYeung SS
Postexercise cold-water immersion improves intermittent high-intensity exercise performance in normothermia.2016LinkMcCarthy A
Breath-hold times in air compared to breath-hold times during cold water immersions.2015LinkTaber MJ
Integrative physiological and behavioural responses to sudden cold-water immersion are similar in skilled and less-skilled swimmers.2015LinkButton C
Muscle Reaction Time During a Simulated Lateral Ankle Sprain After Wet-Ice Application or Cold-Water Immersion.2015LinkThain PK
Central and peripheral adjustments during high-intensity exercise following cold water immersion.2014LinkStanley J
Does hydrotherapy help or hinder adaptation to training in competitive cyclists?2014LinkHalson SL
Effect of run training and cold-water immersion on subsequent cycle training quality in high-performance triathletes.2014LinkRowsell GJ
Including arm exercise during a cold water immersion recovery better assists restoration of sprint cycling performance.2014LinkCrampton D
Effect of recovery interventions on cycling performance and pacing strategy in the heat.2014LinkDe Pauw K
Cycling time to failure is better maintained by cold than contrast or thermoneutral lower-body water immersion in normothermia.2013LinkCrampton D
Association between post-game recovery protocols, physical and perceived recovery, and performance in elite Australian Football League players.2013LinkBahnert A
Individual perception of recovery is related to subsequent sprint performance.2013LinkCook CJ
Consecutive days of cold water immersion: effects on cycling performance and heart rate variability.2013LinkStanley J
Cold modalities with different thermodynamic properties have similar effects on muscular performance and activation.2013LinkVieira A
Effect of post-exercise hydrotherapy water temperature on subsequent exhaustive running performance in normothermic conditions.2013LinkDunne A
The effect of precooling on cardiovascular and metabolic strain during incremental exercise.2013LinkSmith DL
Pre-cooling for endurance exercise performance in the heat: a systematic review.2012LinkJones PR
Keeping your cool: possible mechanisms for enhanced exercise performance in the heat with internal cooling methods.2012LinkSiegel R
Pre-cooling with ice slurry ingestion leads to similar run times to exhaustion in the heat as cold water immersion.2012LinkSiegel R
The effect of cold water immersion on 48-hour performance testing in collegiate soccer players.2012LinkRupp KA
The effect of post-exercise hydrotherapy on subsequent exercise performance and heart rate variability.2012LinkStanley J
Effects of cold-water immersion and contrast-water therapy after training in young soccer players.2011LinkDe Nardi M
Effect of cold water immersion on repeated cycling performance and limb blood flow.2011LinkVaile J
Effects of age and spa treatment on match running performance over two consecutive games in highly trained young soccer players.2011LinkBuchheit M
Effect of post-match cold-water immersion on subsequent match running performance in junior soccer players during tournament play.2011LinkRowsell GJ
Effect of a 5-min cold-water immersion recovery on exercise performance in the heat.2010LinkPeiffer JJ
Effect of cold water immersion on 100-m sprint performance in well-trained swimmers.2010LinkParouty J
Effect of cold water immersion on repeated 1-km cycling performance in the heat.2010LinkPeiffer JJ
Precooling can prevent the reduction of self-paced exercise intensity in the heat.2010LinkDuffield R
The impact of cold-water immersion on power production in the vertical jump and the benefits of a dynamic exercise warm-up.2010LinkDixon PG

Recovery and Fatigue

StudyYearLinkFirst Author
A customised cold-water immersion protocol favours one-size-fits-all protocols in improving acute performance recovery.2018LinkZandvoort CS
Effect of Body Composition on Physiological Responses to Cold-Water Immersion and the Recovery of Exercise Performance.2018LinkStephens JM
Recovery practices in Division 1 collegiate athletes in North America.2018LinkMurray A
Effects of Cold Water Immersion and Contrast Water Therapy for Recovery From Team Sport: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.2017LinkHiggins TR
Effects of Cold Water Immersion and Contrast Water Therapy for Recovery From Team Sport: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.2017LinkHiggins TR
Fatigue and Recovery in Rugby: A Review.2017LinkTavares F
Dosages of cold-water immersion post exercise on functional and clinical responses: a randomized controlled trial.2017LinkMachado AF
Can Cold Water Immersion Enhance Recovery in Elite Olympic Weightlifters? An Individualized Perspective.2017LinkSchimpchen J
Cold-Water Immersion and Contrast Water Therapy: No Improvement of Short-Term Recovery After Resistance Training.2017LinkArgus CK
Cold-Water Immersion for Athletic Recovery: One Size Does Not Fit All.2017LinkStephens JM
Post-exercise recovery of biological, clinical and metabolic variables after different temperatures and durations of cold water immersion: a randomized clinical trial.2017LinkVanderlei FM
The effects of cold water immersion and active recovery on inflammation and cell stress responses in human skeletal muscle after resistance exercise.2017LinkPeake JM
Recovery From Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage: Cold-Water Immersion Versus Whole-Body Cryotherapy.2017LinkAbaïdia AE
The effects of cold water immersion and active recovery on inflammation and cell stress responses in human skeletal muscle after resistance exercise.2017LinkPeake JM
The physiological response to cold-water immersion following a mixed martial arts training session.2017LinkLindsay A
The use of continuous vs. intermittent cold water immersion as a recovery method in basketball players after training: a randomized controlled trial.2017LinkSánchez-Ureña B
Can Water Temperature and Immersion Time Influence the Effect of Cold Water Immersion on Muscle Soreness? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.2016LinkMachado AF
The Effect of Water Temperature during Cold-Water Immersion on Recovery from Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage.2016LinkVieira A
The effects of cold water immersion with different dosages (duration and temperature variations) on heart rate variability post-exercise recovery: A randomized controlled trial.2016LinkAlmeida AC
Comparison of between-training-sessions recovery strategies for world-class BMX pilots.2015LinkMarquet LA
Comparison of the effects of electrical stimulation and cold-water immersion on muscle soreness after resistance exercise.2015LinkJajtner AR
Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heat.2015LinkRacinais S
Effect of varied recovery interventions on markers of psychophysiological stress in professional rugby union.2015LinkLindsay A
Effects of cold water immersion and active recovery on hemodynamics and recovery of muscle strength following resistance exercise.2015LinkRoberts LA
Effects of seated and standing cold water immersion on recovery from repeated sprinting.2015LinkLeeder JD
The Effect of Post-Exercise Cryotherapy on Recovery Characteristics: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis2015LinkHohenauer E
Sleep Hygiene and Recovery Strategies in Elite Soccer Players.2015LinkNédélec M
The effect of various cold-water immersion protocols on exercise-induced inflammatory response and functional recovery from high-intensity sprint exercise.2014LinkWhite GE
Effect of recovery interventions on cycling performance and pacing strategy in the heat.2014LinkDe Pauw K
Cold water immersion (cryotherapy) for preventing muscle soreness after exercise.2014LinkDiong J
Cold water immersion enhances recovery of submaximal muscle function after resistance exercise.2014LinkRoberts LA
Cold water immersion in the management of delayed-onset muscle soreness: is dose important? A randomised controlled trial.2014LinkGlasgow PD
Cold-water immersion decreases cerebral oxygenation but improves recovery after intermittent-sprint exercise in the heat.2014LinkMinett GM
Postexercise cold water immersion benefits are not greater than the placebo effect.2014LinkBroatch JR
Recovery from repeated on-court tennis sessions: combining cold-water immersion, compression, and sleep recovery interventions.2014LinkDuffield R
Cooling and performance recovery of trained athletes: a meta-analytical review.2013LinkPoppendieck W
Water immersion recovery for athletes: effect on exercise performance and practical recommendations.2013LinkVersey NG
Cycling time to failure is better maintained by cold than contrast or thermoneutral lower-body water immersion in normothermia.2013LinkCrampton D
Effect of evening postexercise cold water immersion on subsequent sleep.2013LinkRobey E
Effectiveness of water immersion on postmatch recovery in elite professional footballers.2013LinkElias GP
Effects of sports massage and intermittent cold-water immersion on recovery from matches by basketball players.2013LinkDelextrat A
Evaluation of hydrotherapy, using passive tests and power tests, for recovery across a cyclic week of competitive rugby union.2013LinkHiggins TR
Post-exercise cold water immersion: effect on core temperature and melatonin responses.2013LinkRobey E
Recovery in soccer : part ii-recovery strategies.2013LinkNédélec M
Association between post-game recovery protocols, physical and perceived recovery, and performance in elite Australian Football League players.2013LinkBahnert A
Individual perception of recovery is related to subsequent sprint performance.2013LinkCook CJ
The relative efficacy of three recovery modalities after professional rugby league matches.2013LinkWebb NP
Cold water immersion and recovery from strenuous exercise: a meta-analysis.2012LinkLeeder J
Cold water immersion recovery after simulated collision sport exercise.2012LinkPointon M
Cold water immersion recovery following intermittent-sprint exercise in the heat.2012LinkPointon M
Effect of daily cold water immersion on heart rate variability and subjective ratings of well-being in highly trained swimmers.2012LinkAl Haddad H
Effects of cold water immersion and active recovery on post-exercise heart rate variability.2012LinkBastos FN
Effects of water immersion on posttraining recovery in Australian footballers.2012LinkElias GP
Interleukin-6 responses to water immersion therapy after acute exercise heat stress: a pilot investigation.2012LinkLee EC
Effects of cold water immersion on the recovery of physical performance and muscle damage following a one-off soccer match.2011LinkAscensão A
Effects of cold-water immersion and contrast-water therapy after training in young soccer players.2011LinkDe Nardi M
Comparison between cold water immersion therapy (CWIT) and light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) in short-term skeletal muscle recovery after high-intensity exercise in athletes--preliminary results.2011LinkLeal Junior EC
Comparison of body cooling methods on physiological and perceptual measures of mildly hyperthermic athletes.2011LinkDeMartini JK
Effect of walking and resting after three cryotherapy modalities on the recovery of sensory and motor nerve conduction velocity in healthy subjects.2011LinkHerrera E
Effect of walking and resting after three cryotherapy modalities on the recovery of sensory and motor nerve conduction velocity in healthy subjects.2011LinkHerrera E
Physiological and nutritional aspects of post-exercise recovery: specific recommendations for female athletes.2011LinkHausswirth C
Short term effects of various water immersions on recovery from exhaustive intermittent exercise.2011LinkPournot H

EIMD, DOMS & Inflammation

StudyYearLinkFirst Author
The effects of cold water immersion and active recovery on inflammation and cell stress responses in human skeletal muscle after resistance exercise.2017LinkPeake JM
The Efficacy of Repeated Cold Water Immersion on Recovery Following a Simulated Rugby Union Protocol2017LinkBarber
Use of Cold-Water Immersion to Reduce Muscle Damage and Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness and Preserve Muscle Power in Jiu-Jitsu Athletes.2016LinkFonseca LB
What are the Physiological Mechanisms for Post-Exercise Cold Water Immersion in the Recovery from Prolonged Endurance and Intermittent Exercise?2016LinkIhsan M
The Effect of Water Temperature during Cold-Water Immersion on Recovery from Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage.2016LinkVieira A
The effect of various cold-water immersion protocols on exercise-induced inflammatory response and functional recovery from high-intensity sprint exercise.2014LinkWhite GE
Cold-water immersion (cryotherapy) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise.2012LinkBleakley C
Effects of cold water immersion on the recovery of physical performance and muscle damage following a one-off soccer match.2011LinkAscensão A
Effects of cold-water immersion on physical performance between successive matches in high-performance junior male soccer players.2009LinkRowsell GJ
Influence of cold-water immersion on indices of muscle damage following prolonged intermittent shuttle running.2007LinkBailey DM
The effects of multiple cold water immersions on indices of muscle damage2008LinkGoodall S
Effects of cold water immersion on the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage.1999LinkEston R

Cognition

StudyYearLinkFirst Author
Cold acclimation and cognitive performance: A review.2017LinkJones DM
Intermittent whole-body cold immersion induces similar thermal stress but different motor and cognitive responses between males and females.2014LinkSolianik R
Two strategies for response to 14 °C cold-water immersion: is there a difference in the response of motor, cognitive, immune and stress markers?2014LinkBrazaitis M
Cognitive function during lower body water immersion and post-immersion afterdrop.2013LinkSeo Y
Effect of task complexity on mental performance during immersion hypothermia.1993LinkGiesbrecht GG
Motor and cognitive effects of cold water immersion under hyperbarbic conditions.1976LinkBiersner RJ

Treatment

StudyYearLinkFirst Author
Cold-Water Immersion Cooling Rates in Football Linemen and Cross-Country Runners With Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia.2017LinkGodek SF
Tarp-Assisted Cooling as a Method of Whole-Body Cooling in Hyperthermic Individuals.2017LinkHosokawa Y
Temperate-Water Immersion as a Treatment for Hyperthermic Humans Wearing American Football Uniforms.2017LinkMiller KC
Cooling Effectiveness of a Modified Cold-Water Immersion Method After Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia.2016LinkLuhring KE
Effects of mild hypohydration on cooling during cold-water immersion following exertional hyperthermia.2016LinkButts CL
National Athletic Trainers' Association Releases New Guidelines for Exertional Heat Illnesses: What School Nurses Need to Know.2016LinkVanScoy RM
Physiologic and Perceptual Responses to Cold-Shower Cooling After Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia.2016LinkButts CL
Optimizing Cold Water Immersion for Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia: A Meta-analysis.2015LinkZhang Y
Effectiveness of cold water immersion for treating exertional heat stress when immediate response is not possible.2015LinkFlouris AD
Effectiveness of cold water immersion in the treatment of exertional heat stroke at the Falmouth Road Race.2015LinkDemartini JK
On-site treatment of exertional heat stroke.2015LinkSloan BK
Heart rate variability during exertional heat stress: effects of heat production and treatment.2014LinkFlouris AD
Water immersion in the treatment of exertional hyperthermia: physical determinants.2014LinkFriesen BJ
Exertional heat stroke: new concepts regarding cause and care.2012LinkCasa DJ
Evidence-based medicine and the recognition and treatment of exertional heat stroke, part II: a perspective from the clinical athletic trainer.2011LinkMazerolle SM
Cold-water immersion and the treatment of hyperthermia: using 38.6°C as a safe rectal temperature cooling limit.2010LinkGagnon D

Mechanisms

StudyYearLinkFirst Author
Influence of body composition on physiological responses to post-exercise hydrotherapy.2018LinkStephens JM
Cold Water Mediates Greater Reductions in Limb Blood Flow than Whole Body Cryotherapy.2017LinkMawhinney C
Influence of cold-water immersion on limb blood flow after resistance exercise.2017LinkMawhinney C
Modeling of Gender Differences in Thermoregulation.2017LinkIyoho AE
Neuromuscular function during knee extension exercise after cold water immersion.2017LinkWakabayashi H
Postexercise cold water immersion modulates skeletal muscle PGC-1α mRNA expression in immersed and nonimmersed limbs: evidence of systemic regulation.2017LinkAllan R
What are the Physiological Mechanisms for Post-Exercise Cold Water Immersion in the Recovery from Prolonged Endurance and Intermittent Exercise?2016LinkIhsan M
Passive and post-exercise cold-water immersion augments PGC-1α and VEGF expression in human skeletal muscle.2016LinkJoo CH
Repetitive cryotherapy attenuates the in vitro and in vivo mononuclear cell activation response.2016LinkLindsay A
Leukocyte IGF-1 receptor expression during muscle recovery.2015LinkFragala MS
Regular postexercise cooling enhances mitochondrial biogenesis through AMPK and p38 MAPK in human skeletal muscle.2015LinkIhsan M
Cold water immersion of the ankle decreases neuromuscular response of lower limb after inversion movement.2014LinkMacedo CS
Effects of whole body cryotherapy and cold water immersion on knee skin temperature.2014LinkCostello JT
Effects of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid and cold water immersion on expression of CR3 and MIP-1β following resistance exercise.2014LinkGonzalez AM
Effects of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid and cold water immersion on post-exercise markers of muscle damage.2014LinkGonzalez AM
Mediators of monocyte migration in response to recovery modalities following resistance exercise.2014LinkJajtner AR
Two strategies for response to 14 °C cold-water immersion: is there a difference in the response of motor, cognitive, immune and stress markers?2014LinkBrazaitis M
Influence of cold-water immersion on limb and cutaneous blood flow after exercise.2013LinkMawhinney C
Influence of postexercise cooling on muscle oxygenation and blood volume changes.2013LinkIhsan M
Neural and physiological responses to a cold pressor challenge in healthy adolescents.2013LinkRichardson HL
Postexercise cold-water immersion does not attenuate muscle glycogen resynthesis.2013LinkGregson W
Influence of circulating cytokines on prolactin during slow vs. fast exertional heat stress followed by active or passive recovery.2012LinkWright HE
Influence of cold water immersion on limb and cutaneous blood flow at rest.2011LinkGregson W
What is the biochemical and physiological rationale for using cold-water immersion in sports recovery? A systematic review.2010LinkBleakley CM

Misc. Studies

StudyYearLinkFirst Author
Effect of short-term cold-water immersion on muscle pain sensitivity in elite track cyclists.2018LinkKlich S
Pre-cooling moderately enhances visual discrimination during exercise in the heat.2017LinkClarke ND
Validity of Core Temperature Measurements at 3 Rectal Depths During Rest, Exercise, Cold-Water Immersion, and Recovery.2017LinkMiller KC
Optimizing Cold-Water Immersion for Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia: An Evidence-Based Paper.2016LinkNye EA
Physiological and perceptual effects of precooling in wheelchair basketball athletes.2016LinkForsyth P
The Beneficial Effect of Parasympathetic Reactivation on Sympathetic Drive During Simulated Rugby Sevens.2016LinkDouglas J
The use of thermal imaging to assess the effectiveness of ice massage and cold-water immersion as methods for supporting post-exercise recovery.2016LinkAdamczyk JG
Changes in femoral artery blood flow during thermoneutral, cold, and contrast-water therapy.2015LinkMénétrier A
Cold-Water Immersion for Hyperthermic Humans Wearing American Football Uniforms.2015LinkMiller KC
Necessity of Removing American Football Uniforms From Humans With Hyperthermia Before Cold-Water Immersion.2015LinkMiller KC
Two strategies for the acute response to cold exposure but one strategy for the response to heat stress.2015LinkBrazaitis M
Cold-water immersion and iced-slush ingestion are effective at cooling firefighters following a simulated search and rescue task in a hot environment.2014LinkWalker A
Sleep quantity and quality in elite youth soccer players: a pilot study.2014LinkRobey E
Habituation of the metabolic and ventilatory responses to cold-water immersion in humans.2013LinkTipton MJ
Brain mapping after prolonged cycling and during recovery in the heat.2013LinkDe Pauw K
Exertional rhabdomyolysis in a collegiate american football player after preventive cold-water immersion: a case report.2012LinkKahanov L
Muscle, skin and core temperature after -110°c cold air and 8°c water treatment.2012LinkCostello JT
Effects of cold water immersion on knee joint position sense in healthy volunteers.2011LinkCostello JT
Postexercise water immersion increases short-term food intake in trained men.2011LinkHalse RE
Variable profile of individual heart rate responses to cold water immersion apnea in healthy late adolescent men.2011LinkWierzba TH

Biomechanics

StudyYearLinkFirst Author
Effects of cold water immersion on lower extremity joint biomechanics during running.2015LinkFukuchi CA
Changes in landing mechanics after cold-water immersion.2010LinkWang H